Management and Organizational Studies 3343A/B Chapter Notes - Chapter 11: Eval, David H. Jonassen, Questionnaire Construction

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Training Evaluation Chapter 11
What is Training Evaluation?
Organizational training and development interned to
oImprove technical competencies e.g. learning new softwares
oModify attitudes e.g. preparing manager for international assignment
oModify behaviors e.g. better communication skills
Training Evaluation: process to asses the value of training programs to employees
and to organizations
oObjective and subjective information gather before, during and after training
to gather data to estimate value of program
oTraining evaluations vary on a continuum from easy to implement but
yielding less information evaluations to more complex evaluations that bring
richer data
Why Conduct Training Evaluations?
Necessary for competitiveness in current global environment
Chronic understaffing (due to cost-cutting layoffs) have lead to less time available
for training
Training evaluation is value to:
oHelp managerial responsibility to improve training
oHelp managers identify which training programs to use & who to train
oDetermine costs/benefits to chose most cost-effective technique
oDetermine if expected results achieved or problem solved
oDiagnose strengths and weaknesses to pinpoint improvements
oJustify and reinforce credibility of training function to organization
Do Organizations Conduct Training Evaluations?
Gradual decline in evaluation activities of organizations
o2002, 89% Canadian organizations assessed training
o2010, less than 50% still did
Significant decline despite staff time invested in evaluation was steady
Most evaluations are reaction based
o92% of organizations still using training evaluations gauge success by
measuring trainees ‘reactions’ for 80% of the courses held
Barriers to Training Evaluation
Two categories: pragmatic and political
Perceived as too time consuming or too expensive
oExplains why organizations that use evaluation use simplest form (reaction
based)
Difficulty in isolating from other variables the unique impact the training has on
employee effectiveness
Top management doesn’t demand them
Pragmatic Barriers to Training Evaluation
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Training Evaluation Chapter 11
Training departments required to demonstrate usefulness, contribution to job
performance, and to company
oTraining department finding this hard to do
Data gatherings and analytical efforts require extensive collaborations
oIts disruptive and hard to obtain
Knowledge on evaluation models, research design, measurement, questionnaire
construction, and data analysis is intimidating
Costs money
Political Barriers to Training Evaluation
Conducted usually when pressure from management
oUsually managers forgo it, managements needs to stress evaluation
Can be threatening
oTraining approach can be found to be ineffective
Worries trainers that this will reflect poorly on them
Conflict of interest when trainers also evaluates effectiveness
oSome considered it unethical feel externals should conduct eval
Types of Training Evaluation
Most training evaluations focus on impact on trainee’s perceptions and behaviors
Perceptions assessed through questionnaires
Behaviors assessed through self-reports, observations, performance data
Evaluations distinguished by data gather and analyzed and purpose of eval
1. The data collected: type of information gathered and how it was gathered
a. Trainee perceptions at the end of training, did they like it?
b. Psychological forces during training, affective, cognitive, skill based
c. Work environment, transfer climate and learning culture
2. The purpose of the evaluation: formative and summative evaluation
a. Formative: provide data about various aspects of a training program
i. Special interest to training designers and instructors
b. Summative: provide data about worthiness/effectiveness of training program
i. Special interest to organizational managers
Also have descriptive and causal evaluations
oDescriptive: provide information that describes the trainee once he or she
has completed a training program
oCausal: provide information to determine whether training caused the post-
training behaviors
Models of Training Evaluations
Specify information that is to be measured and their interrelationships
Dominant training evaluation model if Donald Kirkpatrick’s hierarchical model
oResearch indicates model can be improved
oCOMA model and Decision based model have attempted that
Kirkpatrick’s Hierarchical Model: The Four Levels of Training Evaluation
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Training Evaluation Chapter 11
Oldest, best known, most frequently used
Model identifies four levels of criteria
Program is ‘effective’ when
oLevel 1 Reactions: Trainees report positive reactions to training
oLevel 2 Learning: Trainees learn the training material
oLevel 3 Behaviors: Trainees apply whet they learn to their job
oLevel 4 Results: Has positive effect on organizational outcomes
Recent additional level been added
oLevel 5 Investment: assess financial benefit to organization
Model in a hierarchy because each succeeding level is more important info
All levels positively related and have a causal effect to each level
Critique of Kirkpatrick’s Model
Research by Elwood Holton and George Alliger doubt validity of hierarchical
aspect
oCorrelations between levels are small or non-existent
Lacks empirical support
oModel can’t diagnose specific nature of problem in program if there is one
or what to do about it
Because model collects no other information (e.g. trainee motivation,
self-efficacy, conditions of the organization)
Not well suited to formative evaluation
Model is still effective in providing intrinsic value in assessing
oWhether training program leads to learning
oResults in a payoff to the organization
oIs boring
Also criticized for lack of precision in outcomes
Requires all training evaluations to rely on same variables and outcome measures
COMA Model
Model that involves the measurement of Cognitive, Organizational, Motivational
and Attitudinal variables
Can be measured by questionnaires administered before and after training sessions
oCognitive: level of learning, both procedural and declarative, trainee has
gained from training program
oOrganizational: cluster of variables generated by work environment
impacting transfer of training
Learning culture, opportunity to practice, degree of support
oMotivation: desire to learn and transfer on the job what was learned.
Training motivation: measured at the onset of program
Motivation to transfer: measured immediately after program
oAttitudes: individuals feelings and thinking processes
Self-efficacy, perceptions of control, expectations of self/enviro
C’: degree to which trainees have mastered the skills
O’: degree to which organizational environment will support & help apply skill
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