Management and Organizational Studies 3343A/B Chapter Notes - Chapter 3: Descriptive Knowledge, Procedural Knowledge, Social Cognitive Theory

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CHAPTER THREE: Learning and Motivation
Process of:
-Acquiring knowledge and skills
-Change in individual behaviour as a result of some experience (formal or
Gagne’s model discusses five categories:
-Verbal information (declarative knowledge)
oThis is the facts
oIt is hard to progress further without this
-Intellectual skills
oIt is about the procedural knowledge and the rules
oIt is what to do
-Cognitive strategies (Cognitive outcomes)
oRefers to the application of the knowledge
oIt is knowing when and how to use it
oWhat is the best strategies and techniques
-Motor skills (Skill-based outcomes)
oBy doing the actual thing
-Attitudes (Affective outcomes)
oIt is the belief people have within themselves
oThey are much harder to change
oThey are learned and are really hard to influence in training
Kraiger and colleagues’ model discusses three broad categories:
- Cognitive domain – knowledge
- Skill-based outcomes – motor skills/technical
- Affective outcomes – attitudinal and motivational
Implications for Training and Development
-A training program can focus on one or more learning outcomes
-The extent to which a training program has an effect on any of the outcomes
depends in part to the training objectives
-Different training methods will be more or less effective depending on the
learning outcome a training program was designed to influence
-Different instructional events/conditions of learning are required for each of the
learning outcomes
-Learning outcomes are often interrelated
-Learning generally occurs over a period of time and progresses through a series
of stages
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Anderson’s Adaptive Character of Thought (ACT) Theory
Stage 1: Declarative knowledge
-Learning: knowledge, facts, and information
-Performance: Resource-dependent
Stage 2: Knowledge compilation
-Learning: Integrating tasks into sequences to simplify and streamline the task
oInvolves mental process of compiling knowledge
-Performance: Fragmented and piecemeal
Stage 3: Procedural knowledge
-Learning: Task mastery
-Performance: Automatic & habitual, resource-insensitive
Implications for Training and Development
-Recognizes that learning takes place in stages (declarative knowledge,
compilation, proceduralization)
-Indicates that different types of learning take place at different stages
-The effects of both cognitive ability and motivational interventions on learning
and performance depend on the stage of learning
Resource allocation Theory
-Says that learners possess limited cognitive resources that can be used to learn
a new task
-How well we can perform a new task is limited by:
o*ask for slide*
-The way an individual gathers information, processes, and evaluates it during the
learning process
KOLB’s Learning Cycle/Styles
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-People can learn best by using all four styles
-Kolb notes the importance of a “learning cycle” in which people use all four
modes of learning in a sequence
-Learning is most effective when all four steps in the learning cycle are part of the
learning experience
Accomadating: getting things done
Diverging: being imaginative
Converging: solving problems
Assimilating: Planning
Implications for Training and Development
-Recognizes that people differ in the way they prefer to learn
-Success and comfort in training depends on how training approach and learning
style match
-Design training programs to appeal to people’s different learning styles
-Programs should be designed with each learning mode as part of a sequence of
learning experiences
A. Conditioning Theory
-Learning is a result of reward and punishment contingencies that follow a
response to a stimulus
-A stimulus or cue would be followed by a response, which is then reinforced
-Strengthens the likelihood that response will occur again and that learning will
-Note that both forms of reinforcement will increase or maintain behaviour
- Negative
(removal of
negative out
The Conditioning Process:
1. Shaping: reinforcement of each step until it is mastered
2. Chaining: reinforcing of entire sequences of a task
3. Generalization : Conditioned response occurs circumstances different from
during learning
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