Management and Organizational Studies 3343A/B Chapter Notes - Chapter 10: Job Performance, Ob River, Network For Earthquake Engineering Simulation
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Chapter 10 Transfer of training:
What is transfer of training?
- Organizations are increasingly concerned about the value added of human
- When it comes to training, they are concerned about the transfer of training.
Transfer of training: refers to the application of the knowledge and skills acquired
in a training program on the job and the maintenance of acquired knowledge and
skills over time
- There are two conditions of transfer of training:
1. Generalization: refers to the use or application o% learned material to the
2. Maintenance: refers to the use or application of learned material on the job
over a period of time.
- Transfer of training occurs when learned material is generalized to the
context and maintenance over a period of time on the job.
- The extent to which a training program transfers to the job can be described
as positive, zero, or negative transfer.
- When transfer is positive, trainees e%ectively apply new knowledge, skills,
and attitudes acquired in training on the job.
- If transfer is zero, trainees are not using new knowledge and skills on the
- When transfer is negative, training has had a negative e%ect and trainees
are performing worse as a result of a training program.
- Transfer of training can also be considered in terms of the type of situations
in which trainees can apply what was learned in training on the job. For
example, near transfer refers to the extent to which trainees can apply
what was learned in training to situations that are very similar to those in
which they were trained.
- On the other hand, far transfer refers to the extent to which trainees can
apply what was learned in training to novel or di%erent situations from those
in which they were trained.
- Final distinction is horizontal and vertical transfer. Horizontal transfer:
involves the transfer of knowledge and skills across di%erent settings or
context at the same level. Vertical transfer: refers to transfer from the
individual or trainee level upward to the organization level.
- In other words, it is concerned with the extent to which changes in trainee’s
behaviour and performance transfer to organizational level outcomes.
- This is an important distinction because transfer to the job (eg: horizontal
transfer) might not lead to changes in organizational outcomes (eg: vertical
Barriers to the transfer of training:
•Immediate manager does not support training
•The culture in the work group does not support the training
•No opportunity exists to use the skills
•No time is provide to use the skills
•Skills could not be applied to the job
•The systems and processes did not support the skills
•Skills no longer apply because of changed job responsibilities
•Skills are not appropriate in our work unit
•Did not see a need to apply what was learned
•Old habits could not be changed
•Reward systems don’t support new skills
Transfer of training process:
- One way to understand the transfer of training is to identify the factors that
contribute to positive transfer of training.
- A good place to start is Baldwin and Ford’s Model of the transfer of training
- Training inputs include trainee characteristics, training design, and the work
- The conditions of
- According to the
and the work
a direct e%ect on
- Training characteristics, the work environment, and learning and retention
have a direct e%ect on transfer generalization and maintenance.
- Learning and retention are a necessary but not su5cient condition for
oThis is because trainee characteristics and the work environment also
play a critical role in whether or not trainees apply to what they learn
in training on the job.
- Trainee characteristics are important for the transfer of training.
- In fact, the same trainee characteristics that in6uence learning and retention
are also important for transfer.
- Trainee di%erences in these characteristics can help us understand why some
trainees are more likely to transfer than others.
- Trainees with higher cognitive ability, training motivation, and self-e5cacy
are more likely to learn and transfer. Among the trainee characteristics,
cognitive ability has been found to be most strongly related to transfer.
- Another trainee characteristics that is particularly relevant to transfer is
motivation to transfer. Motivation to transfer: is a trainee intended e%orts
to utilize skills and knowledge learned in training on the job. Motivation to
transfer has been found to be signi7cant predictor of positive transfer.
- A number of design elements that are known are learning principles that can
be incorporated into a training program to improve the transfer of training
Identical elements: involve providing trainees with training experiences and
conditions that closely resemble those in the actual work environment.
- Identical elements theory states that transfer and have been shown to
increase trainee’s retention of motor and verbal behaviour.
- Are especially important for near transfer and have been shown to increase
trainees retention of motor and verbal behaviours
- Physical 7delity involves making the condition of training programs such as
the surrounding, tasks, and equipment similar to the work environment.
- Psychological 7delity has to do with the extent that trainees attach similar
meanings to the training experience and the job context
General principles: involves teaching trainees the general rules and theoretical
principles that underline the use and application of trained knowledge and skills.
- Training program provides trainees with an explanation of the theory and
principles behind a skill or task that they are learning to perform.
- On the job application is more likely when trainees are taught general rules
and theoretical principles that underlie training content
Stimulus variability: involves providing trainees with a variety of training stimuli
and experiences such as multiple examples of a concept or practice experience in a
variety of situations.