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Chapter 10

Management and Organizational Studies 3352F/G Chapter Notes - Chapter 10: Work Unit, Job Performance, Organizational Commitment

Management and Organizational Studies
Course Code
MOS 3352F/G
Johanna Weststar

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Transfer of training
The generalization of knowledge and skills learned in training on the job and the
maintenance of acquired knowledge and skills over time
What is transfer of training
Transfer of training refers to the application of the knowledge and skills acquired
in a training program on the job and the maintenance of acquired knowledge and skills
over time.
There are two conditions of transfer of training
Generalization: refers to the use or application of learned material to the
Maintenance: refers to the use or application of leaned material on the job
over a period of time.
The extent to which a training program transfers to the job can be described as
Positive transfer trainees effectively apply new knowledge, skills, and
attitudes acquired in training on the job
Zero transfer: not use
Negative transfer: training has had a negative effect and trainees are
performing worse as a result of a training program
The type pf situations in which trainees can apply what was learned in training on
the job
Near transfer: the extent to which trainees can apply what was learned in
training to situations that are very similar to those in which they were trained
Far transfer: the extent to which trainees can apply what was leaned in
training to novel or different situations from those in which they were trained
Horizontal transfer vs. vertical transfer
Horizontal transfer: the transfer of knowledge and skills across different
settings or context at the same level
Vertical transfer: transfer from the individual or trainee level to the
organizational level or the extent to which changes in trainees ‘behaviour or
performance transfer to organizational level outcomes.
Transfer of training problem
Immediate manager does not support the training,
The culture in the work group does not support the training,
No opportunity exists to use the skills,
No time is provided to use the skills,
Skills could not be applied to the job,
The systems and processes did not support the skills,
The resources are not available to use the skills,
Skills no longer apply because of changed job responsibilities,
Skills are not appropriate in our work unit,
Did not see a need to apply what was learned,
Old habits could not be changed, and
Reward systems don’ t support new skills.
Transfer of training process
Baldwin and Ford's model of transfer of training process

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three main factors:
Training inputs:
Trainee characteristics
Training design
The work environment
Training outputs
The conditions of transfer
Transfer generalization
Trainee characteristics
Cognitive ability , training motivation, self-efficacy, internal locus of
control, job involvement, job satisfaction, organizational commitment
Another trainee characteristics that is particularly relevant to transfer is
motivation to transfer----a trainee's intended efforts to utilize skills and knowledge
learned in training on the job
Training design
A number of design elements that are known as learning principles can
be incorporated into a training program to improve the transfer of training
Identical elements
Providing trainees with training experiences and conditions
that closely resemble those in the actual work environment
That exactly is identical? To be most effective, simulations
should have physical and psychological fidelity.
Physical fidelity involves making the conditions of a training
program such as the surroundings tasks, and equipment similar to the work
Psychological fidelity has to do with the extent that trainees
attach similar meanings to the training experience and the job context.
General principles.
Teaching trainees the general rules and theoretical
principles that underline the use and application of trainees knowledge and
Stimulus variability
Providing trainees with a variety of training stimuli and
experiences such as multiple examples of a concept or practice experience in
a variety of situations.
Work environment
Pre-training environment
Management actions prior to a training program send
signals and messages to employees about the importance of training and the
extent to which the organization supports training.
Post-training environment
Supervisor support and peer support
Training transfer climate
A positive and supportive transfer climate has been shown
to results in greater leaning, retention, and transfer of training,
The strongest predictor of transfer
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