Management and Organizational Studies 3384A/B Chapter Notes - Chapter 4: Training Analysis, Society For Human Resource Management, Competitive Service

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Chapter 4 Need’s Assessment
- The critical step in ISD model is a needs analysis to determine the nature of
the problem and whether training is the best solution.
- A need analysis is performed is to determine the di!erence or gap between
the way things are and the way things should be.
What is a needs analysis?
- Need analysis (also known as needs assessments) is the cornerstone and
foundation of training and development
-Need analysis: is a process designed to identify gaps or de&ciencies in
employee and organizational performance.
-Need analysis is concerned with the gaps between actual
performance and desired performance.
oIt is a formal process of identifying needs as gaps between current
and desired results, placing those needs in priority order based on the
cost to meet each need versus the cost ignoring it, and selecting the
most important needs (problems or opportunities) for reduction or
Need analysis helps to identify gaps or deciencies in individual,
group, or organizational performance.
- Needs= required results- current results.
- Goal of need analysis:
oIs to identify the di!erence between what is and what is desired or
required in terms of results, and to compare the magnitude of gaps
against the cost of reducing them or ignoring them.
oA thorough needs analysis can help an organization prioritize its needs
and make informed decisions as to what problems need to be resolved
oNeed analysis identies, prioritizes, and selects needs that will
have an impact on internal and external stakeholders.
oNeed analysis helps to identify the causes of and solutions to
performance problems.
The need analysis process:
- Need analysis is a process that consists of a series of interrelated steps.
- If the performance problem is important, stakeholders are consulted and a
needs analysis is conducted.
- There are three levels of nee analysis: an organizational analysis, task
analysis, and person analysis
Step one: a concern:
- The process of identifying training needs originates slowly and informally
with a concern
- This concerns is sometimes referred to as an itch or a pressure point,
something that causes managers to notice it.
- This concern might be as subtle as noticing that employees are treating
customers in an abrupt manner, or observing that employees are
spending a lot of time asking one another for help with a new system)
- Sometimes the pressure comes from external environment, such as when
legislation regarding employee relations is changed, or the competition
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introduces a highly competitive service feature, or when problems that
threaten public health and safety recognized.
Step two: Importance:
- Net step is to determine whether the concern is central to the e!ectiveness
of the organization.
- The training manager must be aware of the strategic orientation of the
- The goals, plans, introduction of products and services, changes in
technology, practices, and regulations should be clear.
- Another important concern is the cost implications of a problem
- If the performance problem is important, then there must be some way to
demonstrate that correcting the problem will result in increased productivity
or client satisfaction.
- A concern is important (i.e. worthy of further exploration and analysis) if it
has an impact on outcomes that are important to the organization and its
Step three: Consult Stakeholders:
- Involve the stakeholders who have a vested interest in the process and
- Support from key players in the organizations is necessary from the
beginning of the needs analysis process.
- Top management should understand the rationale for the need analysis.
Training analysis must obtain agreement on why the needs analysis is being
done and who will be involved.
- Training analysts must obtain agreement on why the needs analysis is being
done and who will be involved.
- Likewise, other stakeholders, such as employees or their collective
representative, should be consulted.
- All stakeholders must buy into the need analysis process to ensure that the
data collection will result in accurate information and that they have vested
interest in the success of the program.
Step four: Data Collection:
- The next stage is the need analysis process is the most extensive and
involves the documentation of the concern through the collection of
information from three levels of analysis.
- The three levels of needs analysis are the organizational, the task, and the
person or employee.
- Task analysis provides information about the tasks and the relevant
knowledge, skills, and abilities needed to perform selected jobs and answers
the question,” what knowledge, skills, and abilities are required to perform
the hob e!ectively?”
- Person analysis provides information about an employee’s level of
performance and answers the question, “who needs to be trained?”
Needs analysis outcomes: page 141
- Results in a # of outcomes that set the stage for the rest of the training and
development process.
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- Need analysis helps to determine whether training and development is a
good solution to performance problems or if some other intervention might
be more e!ective.
- If training and development is part of the solution, needs analysis information
is used to determine where training is needed in the organization, what type
of training is required, and who in the organization should receive training.
- Need analysis information is also used to write training objectives and to
design training programs (eg: what training current should be included in the
training program, what training methods would be most e!ective).
- The information from a need analysis is used in the development of measures
for training evaluation
- The needs analysis process helps to determine the best solution to
performance problems and how to proceed if training is to be part of the
Organizational analysis:
-O rganizational analysis: involves the study of the entire organization: its
strategy, environment, resources, and context.
Key to organizational analysis is &nding out of a training program is aligned
with an organization’s strategy, the existence of any constraints, as well as
support for the delivery and success of a training program.
Can help identify potential constraints and problems that can derail a training
program so that they can be dealt with prior to the design and delivery of a
costly program.
- Most organizations have a strategy that consist of an organization’s mission,
goals, and objectives such as dedication to quality or innovation.
oThese broad statements trickle down to speci&c goals and objectives
for each department or unit, and re8ect an organization`s plan for
growth, adaptation, pro&tability, and survival.
- In the past: organization`s strategy was set and implemented independently
of the training function and human resource functions such as training and
development are essential for the accomplishment of an organization`s
strategy and objectives
-SHRM: as the alignment of human resource practices with an organization`s
business strategy
- Organization`s strategy should indicate the type and amount of training
- Training is more likely to be e!ective and contribute to an organization`s
success when its congruent with its business strategy.
oWhen training and development programs are designed and
implemented in isolation of an organization`s strategy, they are not
likely to be e!ective in helping an organization achieve its goals.
Training that isn’t linked with the organization`s strategy can lower
a company`s market value by as much as 1.9 percent.
- Factors in the environment can impact the organization, human resource
practices, and training and development because it is dynamic and uncertain.
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