Chapter 4 security part ii: auditing database systems. The dbms provides a controlled environment to assist or prevent access to the database and manage the data resource. Functions of the database administrator: database planning, design, operation/maintenance, change and growth implementation. Data concurrency the presence of complete and accurate data at all user sites: concurrency control serialize transactions which involves labelling each transaction by two criteria: group transactions into classes to identify potential conflicts time-stamp each transaction. Access controls designed to prevent unauthorized individuals from viewing, retrieving, corrupting or destroying the entity s data. In a shared database environment, access control risks include corruption, theft, misuse or destruction of data: security measures: database authorization table contains rules that limit the actions a user can take; privileges are coded in the table which is used to verify the users action requests.