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Chapter 8

Philosophy 1230A/B Chapter Notes - Chapter 8: Argument From Authority, False Dilemma, Argumentum Ad Populum


Department
Philosophy
Course Code
PHIL 1230A/B
Professor
Jonathan Marsh
Chapter
8

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Chapter 8
Fallacy: an error in reasoning that may nevertheless appear at first glance to be correct
reasoning
Formal Fallacy:
-an error in reasoning that arises in virtue of the the logical form of the argument alone (rather
than content)
-may look like good reasoning at first glance, but is clearly not upon closer inspection
-even though the premises are all true, it is possible that the conclusion is false (even though
they are proposing the conclusion is true)
1. If P then Q(affirming the consequent)
2. Q
3. Therefore, P must be true
the correct way that makes it not fallacious (modus ponens)
1. If P then Q
2. P
3. Therefore, Q must be true
Another fallacious way of arguing (fallacy of denying the antecedent)
1.If P then Q
2. It is not the case that P
3. Therefore, necessarily it is not the case that Q.
correct way:
1. If p then q,
2.it is not the case that q
3.therefore it is not the case that p
Informal Fallacies
-virtue of the content not form
*Argument Against the Person (ad hominem fallacy)
-occurs when someone attacks a persons character or circumstances or associates, rather
than the persons reasoned argument, and then concludes on this bias alone that the persons
argument has been refuted.
Examples:
1. if karen is a liberal, she cant be trusted [for anything]
2. Karen is a liberal.
Therefore:
Karen cant be trusted [for anything]
*-the tu quoquecharges a persons argument with hypocrisy, Discrediting a persons
argument merely because they dont act/live consistently with its conclusion. examples:
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