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Philosophy 2801F/G

READINGS WEEK 3 LEVIATHAN HOBBES CHAPTER 15  The right of nature – the preservation of his own nature, that is to say of his own life  A law of nature – general rule found out by reason by which a man is forbidden to do that, which is destructive of his life or taketh away the means of preserving the same  The condition of man is a condition of war, of everyone against everyone in which case everyone is governed by his own reason and there is nothing he can make use of that may not be a help unto him, in preserving his life against his enemies  Every man has a right to everything even to another’s body  There can be no security to any man – that everyman ought to endeavour peace  Fundamental law of nature – seek peace and follow it  The second by all means we can to defend ourselves  That a man be willing when others are so too as far forth as for peace and defence of himself he shall think it necessary to lay down this right to all things and be contented with so much liberty against other men, as he would allow other men against himself  Whatsoever you require that others should do to you that do ye to them  There is nothing to which everyman had not right by nature  Right is laid aside, either b simply renouncing it or by transferring it to another  By simply renouncing when he cares not to whom the benefit thereof renoundeth  By transferring when he intended to benefit thereof some certain person or persons  Bonds by which men are bound and obliged. Bonds that have their strength not from their own nature but from fear of some evil consequence upon the rupture  Therefore there be some rights which no man can be understood by any words or other signs to have abandoned or transferred  There is no benefit consequent to such patience; as there is to the patience of suffering another to be wounded or imprisoned  Motive – end for which this renouncing and transferring of right is introduced is nothing else but the security of a mans person in his life and in the means of so preserving life as not to be weary of it  The mutual transferring of right is that which all men call Contract  When the transferring of right is not mutual; but one of the parties transferred it in hope to gain thereby friendship or service from another or from his friends or in hope to gain the reputation of charity of minimity or to deliver his mind from the pain of compassion  This is not contract but gift  I will give, I will grant which are words of the future promise  Words alone, if they be of the time to come and contain a bare promise are an insufficient signe of a free gift and therefore not obligatory  All contract is mutual translation or change of right and therefore he that promise only because he has already received the benefit for which he has promised  A promise is equivalent to a covenant and therefore obligatory  He that performed first has no assurance the other will perform after because the bonds of words are too weak to bridle mens ambition  For that which could not hinder a man from promising ought to be admitted as a hindrance of performing  The matter or subject of a covenant is always something that fell under deliberation (for a covenant is an act of the will that is to say an act and the last act of deliberation and is therefore always understood to be something to come  Men are freed of their covenants two ways, by performing or by being forgiven. For performance is the natural end of obligation and forgiveness, the restitution of liberty as being a re-transferring of that right  Prisoners of war if trusted with the payment of their ransom are obliged to pay it  For whatever I may lawfully do without obligation the same I may l
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