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Physiology (97)

The Nervous System

19 Pages

Course Code
Physiology 1021
John Ciriello

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3rd Week May1911 1034 AM The Nervous SystemModule 6The NS consists of the central nervous system CNS and peripheral nervous system PNSy The CNS is made up of the BRAIN and SPINAL cordwhile nerves outside of the CNS that go to ymuscles and organs like the heart are considered to be part of the PNS PNSSOMATOMOTOR going to skeletal musclesAUTONOMIC going to other organsyFacts about the Brain The brain contains between 10 billion100 billion cells and weighs about 15 kilos 35 poundsy If all the cells were laid out endtoend they would stretch roughly 1000 km 600milesy You have more brain cells when you are born they you do right now y Action potentials which are the language of the NS can travel down nerve cells up to 400kmhour y240mphBrain Structure Has a left and right cerebral hemispherey The LEFT hemisphere sends signals to activate muscles on the RIGHT side of the bodysensory yinformation from the right side of the body travels to the LEFT hemisphereBrain stem which controls some of the most basic functions of the body like heart rate and respiration is made up of the midbrain pons and medulla oblongataMedulla is continuous with the spinal cordCerebellum located at the back posterior region and just above the brain stemit is mainly responsible for coordinated movementDiencephalon consists of the thalamus and hypothalamusGyri the many bumps on the brain Sulci the dips on the surface of the brainthese folds which are most prominent in humans INCREASE the surface area of the brain The locations of Gyri and Sulci are quite consistent between individualsand are so prominent they yhave their OWN names Each cerebral hemisphere can be divided up into 4 LOBES based on the Gyri and Sulciy Within each lobe are regions that have very specific functionsyFunctional Structure of the Brain Lateral View Frontal lobethe primary motor cortex processes input from skeletal muscles throughout the bodythe motor association area premotor cortex and prefrontal cortex integrate movement information with other sensory inputs to generate perception interpretation of stimuliF I have to remember all this Temporal Lobecontains the primary auditory cortexauditory association areas which recieve and process signals from the auditory nerve and integrate them with other sensory inputs Other portions of the Temporal Lobe are involves in OLFACTION SMELL and in mediation SHORTyTERM MEMORY STORAGERECALL TEMPORALtemple thick temples are close to earsears for auditory Parietal Lobecontains the primary somatosensory cortex which receives input from the major sense organs the skin musculoskeletal system and taste buds The association areas of the Parietal Lobe integrate sensory information with other association yareas of the cortex to form meaningful perceptions
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