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module 13 - endocrine system.docx

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Western University
Physiology 2130
Ingrid L.Stefanovic

Module 13Endocrine System IntroEndocrine system consists of a series of glands that secrete different chemicals into the bloodThese hormones then travel throughout the body to their target site to initiate their effect Endocrine SystemFunctionFunctions of the endocrine system include the maintenance of the internal enviro body temp body fluid volume osmolality adaptation to stress control of growth and metabolism and the control of reproductionNervous system has control over organs with which it is in direct contactEndocrine system is slower to take effect yet lasts longer than nervous system and are generally more widespread throughout the body o Can indirectly affect many organs of the body at a distance by secreting chemicals into the blood GlandsEndocrine glandgroup of specialized cells that synthesize store and release a very special chemical hormone into bloodThe hormone is released into the bloodstream and circulates throughout the body to specific target cells that have receptors for the hormoneThe hormone will then have its effect on the target cell and can either stimulate or inhibit the activity of the cellGlands o Hypothalamus o Pituitary o Thyroid o Adrenal o Pancreas o Gonads ovariestestesHormonesAll hormones can be divided into 3 basic categories based on their chemical makeup o Hormones derived from the AA tyrosine thyroxine triiodothyronine which are secreted from the thyroid gland o Hormones derived from proteins calcitonin parathyroid hormone the pituitary and pancreatic hormones and most of the releasing and inhibiting hormones from the hypothalamus o The steroid hormones cortisol aldosterone estrogen progesterone and testosterone which are all derived from cholesterol Protein hormonesHydrophilic therefore can circulate freely in the bloodHydrophilic therefore they cannot diffuse through the cell membraneReceptor must be located on the cell membrane of the target cell since it cannot diffuse into the cell Steroid andHydrophobic therefore they require a protein carrier to Thyroid Hormones help them circulate in the bloodHydrophobic therefore they can diffuse easily through the cell membraneReceptor located inside the target cellHormonesBasic FeaturesHormones are secreted into the blood in pulses by a very specific stimulus neural or bloodborne and in amounts that vary with the strength of the stimulusOnce secreted by the gland hormones are present in vary small concentrations in the blood
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