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module 14 - reproductive system.docx

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Department
Physiology
Course
Physiology 2130
Professor
Ingrid L.Stefanovic
Semester
Fall

Description
Module 14Reproductive System IntroThe combined functions of both male and female reproductive systems are to pass on the genes of the individuals and maintain the species unlike other systems which is to maintain homeostasisReproductive SystemFetal Development of the Reproductive SystemEach cell in the body contains 23 pairs of chromosomesthis includes a pair of sex chromosomes o The sex chromosomes consists of a large X chromosome and a smaller Y chromosomeAll eggs contain an X chromosome while the sperm can carry either an X or Y chromosomeThe sex of the future baby is determined at the point of fertilizationif a sperm is carrying the X chromosomes penetrates the egg carrying the X chromosome then a female will develop XXIf a sperm carrying the Y chromosome fertilizes the X chromosome bearing the egg then a male will develop XYDevelopment of each respective reproductive tract does not begin immediately after fertilizationDuring the first 6 weeks of development male and female embryos contain common sometimes called indifferent gonads o These structures will eventually form the testes male or ovaries femaleThere are also 2 sets of primitive reproductive tractso Mesonephric Wolffian Duct o Paramesonephric Mullerian DuctWith the correct cues these structures will form either the male or female reproductive tractsIn the developing male embryo at roughly 67 weeks the presence of the Y chromosome causes the indifferent gonads to develop into testesIn the developing female embryo at about 9 wks of development the XX chromosomes are activated and ovaries developOnce the testes or ovaries have developed the reproductive tracts and external genitalia follow In the developing male fetus at 7 weeks testicular cells begin to produce Mullerian inhibiting hormone MIH which causes the Mullerian duct to regress o Then at 9 weeks testicular cells begin to produce testosterone o This small surge in testosterone stimulates the Wolffian duct to develop into the epididymis vas deferens seminal vesicles and the urethra o The presence of testosterone also causes the development of the male external genitaliaThe develop of the female reproductive tract and external genitalia requires no hormonal controlIn the developing female since there is no Mullerian inhibiting hormone the Mullerian duct develops into the fallopian tubes uterus cervix and part of the vaginaSince no testosterone is produced in the female fetus the Wolffian duct regresses and female external genitalia develop
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