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Physiology 2130

Gastrointestinal: (pg 343): • Fat o Sources of fat:  Triglycerides: glycerol + 3 fatty acids  Saturated fat (bad, lard, butter); unsaturated fat (good, vegetable oil) Mouth No fat digestion or absorption Lingual lipase (secreted from saliva) is inactive Stomach Some fat digestion (lingual lipase is active, gastric lipase  digest fat)  not very effective b/c fat floats ontop of water No fat absorption Small intestine Most of digestion and all of absorption Pancreatic lipase: digest! (bile + colipase helps digestion!) o Bile + colipase  keeps fat droplets dispersed (small droplets) .: more efficient digestion  A fat droplet ie. A micelle  Micelle is coated in bile; colipase separates bile molecules and allow pancreatic lipase to gest them  Bile: both hydrophobic and hydrophilic: hydrophobic side associate with lipid; hydrophilic associate with water o Enzyme mechanism: triglyeride --> monoglyceride + 2 free fatty acids (lipase/colipase) o Absorption:  Fatty acids are hydrophobic so they can go through membrane  Cholesterol needs a transporter to be absorbed by intestinal cells  Both fatty acids and cholesterol are packaged into chylomicron (fat droplet coated in protein)  to make it aqeous  Chylomicron set to golgi, packaged into vesicle and exocytosis out of cell • Because chylomicron is big; can’t enter blood vessel need to be drained into lymphatic tissue • As it travels through lymph, gets smaller  then enter blood • Vitamins: o Fat soluble: vitamin A, D,E ,K  Absorbed with lipids, transport into body as chylomicron (.: lymph then blood) o Water soluble: vitamin c and B (except B12)  Aqeous env. In small intestine  transported across via symporter  Note: vitamin B requires intrinsic factor in stomach to be absorbed • Minerals, ions and water absorption o Sodium: active transport  No ATP though, indirectly  secondary transport o K+/Cl-  absorbed along with sodium o Calcium absorption is hormonally regulated o Iron  more complex • Water is absorbed by water channels in the small intestine and large intestine o If water is not absorbed, we will secrete 9L of water every day! Metabolism and Adaptations to metabolism • 4 sets of reactions that make up cellular respiration o Glycolysis (one glucose converted into pyruvate + some ATP; 10 step reaction) o Pyruvate  acetyl coA o Citric acid cycle (acetyl coA broken down to produce ATP and high e- carrier) o Electron transport system (high energy electron carriers converted into ATP) • In cellular respiration, amino acids from protein, glycerol + fatty acids can also enter into cycle to make ATP • Carbohydrates o Fates of glucose  ATP production: glucose is oxidized to produce ATP  Amino acid synthesis (protein anabolism)  Glycogen synthesis (glycogenesis)  extra glucose stored as glycogen  Triglyceride synthesis (lipogenesis) extra glucose stored as fa
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