Political Science 1020E Chapter Notes -Quran, Online Gambling, Pareto Efficiency

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Published on 4 Jul 2013
School
Western University
Department
Political Science
Course
Political Science 1020E
Professor
Politics 1020
Ethics and Public Policy: A Philosophical Inquiry
Chapter 1: Scientific Experiments on Animals
- A license will only be granted if, in the opinion of the authority, the benefits of the research outweigh
the harms, and experimenting on animals is the only feasible way of obtaining the information
sought” (page 12)
- “[…] experiment will contribute to the scientific enterprise, with possible eventual benefits to human
or to human welfare” (page 12)
- Animals are used particularly for drug discovery and testing (page 13)
- “Even if animal experiments work, it doesn’t settle the moral question of whether they should be
permitted (page 15)
- Animals have rights on the basis that if human beings have rights and there is no moral distinction
between human beings and other animals then such animals must have rights too (page 18)
- “On the moral-community approach, we should either treat animals as we do human beings, or we
have no moral duties to them at all (page 19)
- “It [is] inhumanely callous to simply ignore the fact that a creature can feel pain, even if we find
reasons to justify experimenting on it” (page 21)
- Even when experiments are undertaken to devise pharmaceuticals for use on animals, the benefits
are usually sought for human purposes, and the particular individual animals that do not suffer do
not also benefit” (page 31)
- Particular animals would not exist if it was not for animal experiments
- Three R’s (page 33)
o Refinement
Experiments should be modified so that they are as little harmful as they could be to
animals
o Reduction
Reduction in the number of animals used
o Replacement
Knowledge sought by experimenting on animals might be achieved in some other way
Chapter 2: Gambling
- Internet gambling would gravitate towards low-tax locations to avoid the UK gambling duty
o Make their offering more competitive and profitable
- Introduction of the National Lottery had led to allegations that the government was not following
rules it had laid down for others and could lead to legal challenge
- It is not permissible to advertise bingo or betting shops on television
- Gambling is like going to a restaurant or a football game
o It is people’s own business what they do with their time
- Gambling at a young age leads to responsible practice
- Gambling has no harm to others
- Islam argument: one may get rich without working
- Koran argument: sets men against each other and makes them neglect their prays
- Gambling affects oneself: lying, cheating and borrowing money
Chapter 8: The Free Market
- Pareto improvement: Makes at least one person better off and no one worse off
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Document Summary

A license will only be granted if, in the opinion of the authority, the benefits of the research outweigh the harms, and experimenting on animals is the only feasible way of obtaining the information sought (page 12) [ ] experiment will contribute to the scientific enterprise, with possible eventual benefits to human or to human welfare (page 12) Animals are used particularly for drug discovery and testing (page 13) Even if animal experiments work, it doesn"t settle the moral question of whether they should be permitted (page 15) Animals have rights on the basis that if human beings have rights and there is no moral distinction between human beings and other animals then such animals must have rights too (page 18) On the moral-community approach, we should either treat animals as we do human beings, or we have no moral duties to them at all (page 19)