Has been represented using the idea of a billiard table in which the balls represent sovereign state realism claims to be realistic in comparison with the utopianism of idealism. Hobbes: discussed nature of secular power and authority. State = sovereign, independent, self-control; motivated by a drive for power, security, the pursuit of national interest. Shift alliance between states so that one is not completely powerful maintains order. International institutions and law are only effective if backed by force. Main form of power = military or physical. Conflict and violence: realists limit their interest for the most part to he causes and nature of wars. +hegemony: is the dominance of a single power believe that states aim to maximize wealth and that this best achieved by securing a broadly liberal, free-market international economy. Gilpin: there was a direct relationship between us power and the stability of the international economic order. People identify first and foremost with the nation-state.