Radical Islamism

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Department
Political Science
Course
Political Science 1020E
Professor
Charles Jones
Semester
Fall

Description
Various names for the ideology that inspires radical groups such as al-Qaeda, Lashkar-e-Taiba and other groups: Political Islam, radical Islamism, Islamic fundamentalism, or Islamofascism This new ideology see themselves as "true" Muslims, and their interpretation of Islam as the only true and authentic version of it Islam is a religion and therefore an ideology like other religions, but a minority variant of Islam called radical or fundamentalist Islamism, does qualify as an ideology Muslims holds that Islam is a complete way of life, governing activities such as morals, marriage, diet, dress, prayer, personal finance, and family life Islam in Arabic means "submission" Only through submission to God's will that that individual can find peace in this life and paradise in the next A split developed within Islam that continues today: The split between the Sunni and the Shi'ite Muslims These two groups have their own answers for the question of who will follow Mohammed's footsteps Sunnis conceived the leader should be elected Shi'ites insists that the leader must be divinely gifted and be a member of house of Ali Jihad = the struggle against evil Jihad is conceived as the inner struggle to overcome the temptation to be selfish and evil This notion is also perceived to be the outward struggle against the enemies of Islam, which becomes central to radical Islamism Faith in Islam perceives religion and state to be the same, which explains Shar'ia - Islamic law derived from the Qur'an and the Sunna For radical Islamism, the law of the land is Shar'ia, narrowly interpreted and strictly enforced by a theocracy In the twentieth century, Muslim countries began to separate government and politics from matters of faith Followed the example of Western liberals and socialists Radical Islamists saw secularism as a betrayal of their faith Muslims have felt that their faith have been threatened by external enemies Radical Islamism differs from mainstream Islam largely because the radicals see the threat as greater and the danger more imminent Historically four distinct wave: First: Christian Crusades (Roughly AD1100 - 1300) Second: European imperial expansion into North Africa and the Middle East in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries Third: Establishment of the state of Israel in Palestine after WWII Fourth: Liberalism, secularism, materialism, religious toleration, and sexual equality (Modernism) United States leading this movement Support of Israel, and support of Saudi Arabia Stationed troops in Mecca and Medina, sacred sites of Islam What distinguishes moderate or mainstream Muslims from radicals such as bin Laden and the other members of al-Qaeda, or the Taliban of Afghanistan, depends on the question of what is to be done, how, and by whom Radical Islamism Radical or fundamentalist Islamism Represent the Muslim Counter-Enlightenment Rejects scientific and secular ideas of the Enlightenment Reactionary ideology that aims to restore Islam into its "pure" state Directed now only towards the West, but also against Muslims who subscribe to "Western" ideas and aspirations that would allegedly make Islam into a more open and tolerant religion Qutb joined the Muslim Brotherhood Western influence could only be resisted by Muslims who are resolute in their faith and prepared to practice jihad Proposed to turn Egypt into an Islamic state Wanted to overthrow Nasser's secular regime but was captured, tortured, and later executed Had a radical interpretation of the Qur'an Radical Islamists believe Christians and Jews are working together to co
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