State - German Ideology, Marx.docx

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Political Science
Political Science 1020E
Bruce Morrison

IDEOLOGY IN GENERAL, GERMAN IN PARTICULAR – MARX  This dependence on Hegel is the reason why not one of these modern critics has even attempted a comprehensive criticism of the Hegelian system, however much each professes to have advanced beyond Hegel  The entire body of German philosophical criticism is confined to criticism of religious conceptions  What religious consciousness and a religious conception really meant was determined variously as they went along  The dominance of religious was taken for granted  The Young Hegelians have t o fight only against these illusions of the consciousness, this demand to change consciousness amounts to a demand to interpret reality in another way  The premises which we begin are not arbitrary ones, not dogmas but real premises from which abstraction can only be made in the imagination  The first premise of all human history is of course, the existence of living human individuals  The writing of history must always set out from these natural bases and their modification in the course of history through the action of men  Begin to distinguish themselves from animals as soon as they begin to produce their means of subsistence  By producing their means of subsistence men are indirectly producing their actual material life  This mode of production must not be considered simply as being the reproduction of the physical existence of the individuals  The nature of individuals thus depends on the material conditions determining their production  This production only makes its appearance with the increase of population  The division of labour inside a nation leads at first to the separation of industrial and commercial from agricultural labour, and hence to the separation of town and country and to the conflict of their interests  The first form of ownership is tribal  The division of labour is at the stage still very elementary and is confined to a further extension o the natural division of labour existing in the family. The social structure is therefore limited to an extension of the family  The second form is the ancient communal and state ownership which proceeds especially from the union of several tribes into a city by agreement or by conquest and which is still accompanied by slavery  This whole interpretation of history appears to be contradicted by the fact of conquest. Up till now violence, war, pillage, murder robberty etc have been accepted as the driving force of history  Slavery remained the basis of the whole productive system  The concentration of private property which began very early in Rome and proceeded very rapidly from the time of the civil war and especially under the emperors on the other hand, coupled with this the transformation of the plebeians small peasantry into a proletariat which however owning to its intermediate position between propertied citizens and slaved never achieved an independent development  The third form of ownership is feudal or estate property  As soon as feudalism is fully developed, there also arises antagonism to the town  This feudal organization was, just as much as the ancient communal ownership, an association against a subjected producing class; but the form of association and the relation to the direct producers were different because of the different conditions of production  The feudal system of landownership had its counterpart in the towns in the shape of corporative property  There was little division of labour in the heyday of feudalism  The separation of industry and commerce was found already in existence in older towns, in the new it was developed later, when the towns entered into mutual relations  The connection of the social and political structure with production. The social structure of the state are continually evolving out of the life process of definite individuals  The production of ideas of conceptions and consciousness is at first directly interwoven with the material activity and the material intercourse of men  Consciousness can never be anything else than conscious existence, and the existence of men is their actual life process  Real life process we demonstrate the development of the ideological reflexes and echoes of this life process  Life is not determined by consciousness but consciousness in life, in the first method of approach the starting point is consciousness taken as the living individual; in the second methods which conforms to real life, it is the real living, individuals themselves and consciousness is considered solely as their consciousness  When reality is depicted, philosophy as an independent branch of knowledge loses its medium of existence HISTORY  Stating the first premise of all human existence and therefore of ll human history, men must be in a position to live in order to be able to make history  The first historical act is thus the production of the means to satisfy these needs and production of material life itself  The satisfaction of the first need action of satisfying and the instrument of satisfactio
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