Political Ideologies and Democratic Ideal - Ball and Dagger.docx

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Political Science
Political Science 1020E
Charles Jones

Politics 1020 Political Ideologies and the Democratic IdealTerence Ball and Richard DaggerCHAPTER 1Ideology and DemocracyIdeologies are sets of ideas that shape peoples thinking and actions with regard to race nationality the role and function of government the relations between men and women human responsibility for the natural environment and many other mattersTo understand complex political ideas you must understand history Function of IdeologiesOffer a way of looking at complex events and try to make sense of themSupply standards for evaluating social conditionsSupplies its adherent with an orientation and a sense of identityo Help people orient themselves who they are and how they fit into the world Tells its followers what to do and how to do itScientific theories are empirical in nature o Concerned with describing features of the world o Not prescribing what people ought to do o Carry implications for how people can live o Carry implications for the normative problem of how people should liveHuman Nature Set of basic beliefs about human natureIt is the nature of humans to compete with each other in hopes of acquiring the greatest possible share of scarce resourcesConception of freedom o One is free from something or free to do something Triadic model of freedom o The AgentIndividual class group nation ex race or species o The GoalAgents have goalsNazi purity and supremacy of the white raceCommunist achievement of a classless communist societyLiberal everyone to live his or her own wayFeminist live in a society that women are recognized and of worth o ObstaclesIn pursuing their goals agents encounter obstaclesWhen individuals or class or race or gender a political ideology takes to be its agent are not free to realize their goals the ideology will call for action to remove the obstacles to their freedom Ideology and RevolutionRadical leftResisted change rightNationalism and AnarchismImportant political forcesSometimes considered as ideologies CHAPTER 2AnarchismAnarchy does not mean chaos or confusionWord comes from the Greek work an archos meaning no rule or no governmentAnarchist is someone who advocates abolishing the state and replacing its coercive force with voluntary cooperation among freely consenting individualsAnarchist believes that the state is not necessary but is simply evilPeople can live together peacefully and prosperously with no coercive authorityThe Democratic IdealMao Zedong believed that people needed a period of dictatorship to prepare for democracy 19Democracy is an essentially contested concept page 20The Origin of Democracy Democracy came from ancient Greece o Combination of Greek noun demos meaning people and verb kratein meaning to rule o Demokratia means rule or government by the common people Uneducated unsophisticated and poorMade up majority of the citizensAristocrats believed that only well established citizens and those with property and ties to noble families were wise enough to governPericles and the democrats believed that most citizens were capable of governing if they would afford to take time away from farming and workAthenian democracy paid citizens to go to the assembly and decide policies by the direct voteCitizens were paid to serve on juriesTo be a citizen in Athenian democracy you had to be a free male adult o Women resident foreigners and slaves were excluded o Only 110 inhabitants of Athens were a citizenAthenian democracy provided little protection for minority rightsAlthough citizens were equal in the eyes of lie it did not mean they were free to express opinions Assembly sometimes banished citizens temporarily without trial or legal charges o Simply because the majority of the assembly thought the citizens posed a danger to the polisPractice of ostracism write names of those who they want banished on a shell Plato believed that democracy was dangerous o Puts political power into hands of ignorant and envious people o Will not know how to use political power for common good o Only concerned with their own good o Seek to advance by plundering those who are better offo If democracy is ruled by people it is a simple a series of shorts steps to tyrannyPublic Self One Monarchy Tyranny The few Aristocracy Oligarchy The many Polity DemocracyTrue Perverted
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