Political Science 1020 Notes

32 Pages

Political Science
Course Code
Political Science 1020E
Robert Jonasson

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WHAT IS POLITICAL SCIENCE? "POLIS" - Greek word meaning city; in the original sense, 'Politics' concerned the major affairs of the city Aristotle (4th century B.C.) - 'political science' involved two major dimensions: 1. The study of the affairs of various city-states and the differences between them; 2. The moral dimension to social life: 'politics' is about finding the best way to organize a city in order to achieve the good life - this included understanding proper ethical living, since this is so related to the organization of city life In the ancient Greek view, 'political science' included what is now known as political studies, sociology, anthropology, psychology and ethical studies. THE MODERN MEANING OF "POLITICS" What is "POLITICS"? • 'Politics is about who gets what, when and how.' (H. Lasswell) This definition is interesting but note that it can also describe the workings of a purely free market economy (where there may be no consistent decision makers). • 'Politics is the authoritative allocation of values in society.' (D. Easton) • 'Politics is the activity of conflict resolution in which support is mobilized for collective projects.' (B. Jouvenel) These definitions are better because they describe politics as something intimately connected with the idea of POWER and CONFLICT- those who have political power make the decisions, which affect individuals and hopefullysolve conflicts. Modern politics is centered on conflict and power and how it comes into effect in certain territories and how both are used. There is no perfect definition but they all approach the ancient Greek broader definition of political science. As will be discussed later, one can talk about 'corporate politics' or 'church politics' according to the above definitions but what we are usually discussing in this course is 'territorial politics' (the politics of geographical units). MODERN POLITICAL SCIENCE Political science is a 'science' because it seeks to describe, explain and predict political outcomes. It ideally seeks to be, like all sciences, 'value-neutral' (detached and objective) and not 'normative' (seeking values). However, it is a 'soft' science since it has been far less successful in formulating universal laws to understand political behavior. For example, weather forecasters predict what the next day's weather will be and are often right. They even make long-term forecasts, which are sometimes true. Political observers find it more difficult to accurately predict any future political outcomes, especially long- term events. Consider that no one really predicted the fall of Communism until late in the 1980s. i.e Fall of the Berlin wall in 1989. The reason for the above is that political science deals with human beings: we do not study high-pressure systems, molecules or gravity. Human beings are moral actors whose behavior does not easily fall into predictable patterns. It has been said that if a theory of politics were ever discovered which successfully predicted all human decisions (and was made public knowledge), people would act in ways as to invalidate the theory - out of spite! People are self-aware systems. That is why we are able to think and to do whatever you want. Political science has no 'paradigm' (an overwhelmingly accepted scientific framework or theory which seems to describe, explain and predict events). Other disciplines have such paradigms: eg. Paleontology has evolutionary theory; earth science has plate tectonic theory; cosmology has the theory of relativity and so on. Political science is a divided discipline. Here are the 4 major current 'schools' of thought in political science: 1. Political sociology and anthropology - understand social and cultural patterns (eg. voting attitudes, social movements) and you understand politics . Society to Politics. 2. Political economy (mainly Marxist economics) - understand macro-economic patterns and you understand politics. Economy to politics. 3. Neo-institutionalism and neo-sadism- builds on earlier legal and institutional studies (the first modern political science); understand institutions/politicians and you basicallyhave the political picture. Politics to politics. 4. Rational (public) choice - understand micro-economic patterns (rational individual choices) and you understand politics. BASIC CONCEPTS 1. Society • Interactive groups of individuals who live in a common territory • Common ways of conduct • Often self-sufficient but not always • They have conflict, as human population increased so therefore a method of conflict resolution is introduced. I.E. Government… 2. Government a. Process i. Activity of individuals/institutions which make and enforce public decisions that are binding on society ii. Can provide services but ultimately must keep peace iii. Needs obligation of society (subjects) iv. Must punish those who violate peace (break rules and regulations) a. Structure (Who Governs?) i. Modern government: enduring, specialized structure, territorial in nature ii. Many different arrangements possible iii. The more complex the society, the more need for government NOTE: Any territorial government is political; but you can have 'politics' (conflict resolution) without territorial government (anarchy). iv. An anarchic society might solve conflicts without resorting to punishment v. Difficult in more complex and large societies vi. If conflict ever disappears then there will be no need for government or 'politics' (utopia?; heaven?) vii. In modern society, 'politics' is intimately associated with 'government' - so much so that they are commonlyseen as the same thing 3. Power a. The capacity to get what one wants b. ‘The present means to obtain a future apparent good’ (T. Hobbes) c. Hobbes believed that Government is what keeps society together and that without a government society cannot exist. Without government we wouldn’t be able to trust each other. d. Hobbes wrote the Leviathan basicallysaying that government is a monster. b. Types of power: i. Influence: 1. The ability to persuade others to voluntarily follow a course of action 2. Appeals to intellect, passions, self-interest and group solidarity 3. Money an important resource: advertising, bribes, jobs, lobbying 4. Always present in a government ii. Coercion 1. Violence, fines, strikes, false information (manipulation) 2. Non-voluntary 3. Good and bad reasons for it but society cannot solely rely on it to achieve order (expensive) 4. Needed for those who do not heed authority iii. Authority/Legitimacy 1. Based on respect and right 2. Government mainlyrelies on this for power 3. Natural Authority – e.g. Parents and Children 4. Public Authority (created by society) – eg. Government c. Are we going to have more stringent governments once authority/legitimacy begins to be lost? Ex. If The government loses legitimacy they might have to increase Coercion. Which is a bit of a worry for us. For public order we should probably be more dependant on C rather than any of the other. 4. Sovereignty a. Modern concept first introduced by Jean Bodin (1583) b. Highest authority: in every polity (territorial governed area) a person, group or institution must have supreme power (although this power can also be said to be held by the 'people') c. Did not exist in the middle ages in Europe d. Original meaning: sovereignty is undivided; it is not shared e. The sovereign power: i. Makes laws ii. Provides justice iii. ‘Owns’ all land iv. Conducts foreign relations v. Acts as or can remove governing executive f. Types: i. Sovereign monarchies – power held by one individual ii. Parliamentary sovereignty – power help by representative assembly iii. Popular sovereignty – power ultimately held by all individuals. g. In most modern countries, 'sovereignty' is complex (i.e. delegated or shared): eg. In the U.K. (and Canada), 'sovereignty' is said to consist of the following: i. Symbolic – Queen ii. Legal – Parliament iii. But there are those in U.K. (and Canada) who says that what really counts is ‘Popular sovereignty’ since the ‘people’ elect Parliament h. Federations like Canada make things even more complex: 'sovereignty' is further divided between the federal government and the provinces; Courts eg. Canadian Supreme Court can also be said to have 'sovereign powers' i. The modern concept of sovereignty is therefore too flexible; however, it still is useful to describe polities vis a vis one another: eg. 'Canada is a sovereign nation.' (no foreign power can interfere in Canada's affairs without violating its sovereignty). Also, a government can be said to be sovereign because it 'has a monopoly on the use of force' (M. Weber). Even the U.S. government could legally declare a state of emergency and reinstate its monopoly on the use of force. j. After 1500 you start seeing sovereignty in the states. k. You can also always designate power to people as a sovereign owner. You can give it away, and take it back. l. There are a lot of countries that aren’t actuallygoverned sovereignty. m. Without communication and innovation we probably wouldn’t have evolved our territories as much as it is possible today. So we’re able to have the capability for a global state. 5. The State a. Two meanings: i. A 'polity': in this sense, a state is a stable territorial area with population and is sovereign e.g. The state of Canada ii. The apparatus of government: in this sense, a state is more than just ruling authorities, it is the institutions which governments use to govern, such as the bureaucracy and the military; e.g. The 'democratic state' iii. In both the above meanings, governments may change but the state usuallystays the same. 1. It is a modern concept (N. Machiavelli, 1513 and Bodin and Hobbes - see above) 2. Most pre-modern societies were 'stateless' (exceptions: eg. Roman Empire) as there were constant shifting borders, no sense of sovereignty and often no clear sense of who governed and by what means iv. How did the state arise? 1. Primarily through warfare as the technological means became available to enforce order on territories from a central point 2. At first, Europeans states were 'absolute' states with sovereign monarchs at the helm; later 'democratic' states began to replace these 3. Democratic states are tied to the idea of citizenship - most people in a state are members of that state and have certain rights; most humans alive today are citizens of at least one of the 190 or so states in the world 6. The Nation a. Identity based on all or some of these: common race, language, religion, customs, history, gov't b. No need for common ancestry c. Firth modern nations: English, French, Spanish d. 19 Century: nation-building in Europe - gov'ts tried to actively create a sense of nationhood out of disparate peoples in a territory through force, education and symbols e. Vital to nation building was the creation of a common dialect e.g. High German f. The French Revolution (1789) was a true 'national' revolution g. In 1861, Italy became a nation-state; in 1871 Germany became a nation-state h. 'Nation-state' - a state which is based on a sense of nationhood i. Most of the worlds states are nation-states ii. Nation-building still going on in former Yugoslavia and USSR and much of the Third World iii. Many nation-states have a weak sense of nationhood eg. Great Britain is a nation-state; 'British' is the nationality but many Scots, Welsh and even English, do not feel 'British' iv. Canada is also a vague 'nation-state' - many Quebeckers do not feel 'Canadian' (or 'Canadien') v. Canada may be a 'binational' or 'multinational' state vi. ‘Nations” can also be part of many states eg. Germans have at least 4 nation-states: Germany, Austria, Switzerland and Liechtenstein 7. Law a. Scientific laws -rule or regularity in behaviour of any body in the universe eg. law of gravity (unbreakable) b. Societal laws - rules of human conduct (breakable) i. Humans must obey laws through instinct, intellect, custom or coercion c. The enforcement of law is necessary to achieve i. Retribution ii. Restitution iii. Rehabilitation iv. Restraint d. Main Types of Law: i. Customary Law: 1. ‘Evolutionary’ law based on tradition and custom which may have had its origins in a 'divine' source 2. Unwritten; often passed on in Oral form 3. Main form of law in less complex or developed societies ii. Common Law 1. Based on judicial interpretation of customary laws 2. Characterized by judicial precedents (past legal decisions) 3. Mostly unwritten (not codified) 4. Required by more complex societies 5. Is flexible but often uncertain iii. Legislation 1. Written law (codified) 2. Consciously created 3. Can exist with or replace common law 4. Applies to: a. Private law: legal relationships between citizens eg. Business contracts b. Public Law: Legal relationship between the state and citizens e.g. Criminal Law 5. More certain than common law but ‘letter or law’ still requires interpretation e. All law in modern states is the creation of politicians although it is often the courts, which give the impact and shape of law. f. Philosophy of Law: i. Divine Law: 1. Idea that law is from a god (or gods) and is revealed 2. Law is not to be questioned 3. Islam is very dependent on this notion (Christianity less so) ii. Legal Positivism 1. Idea that what qualifies as law is that which is set down (posited) as law; only what lawmakers say is law is law 2. Fits in well with idea of parliamentary sovereignty iii. Natural Law 1. Idea that there are 'laws' which exist in nature and can be known by reason (are self-evident) 2. If states create laws which do not conform to natural laws then such laws are wrong and must be eliminated 3. Natural law thinking largely behind concept of international human rights 8. Constitutionalism a. Constitution: i. Set of rules that: 1. Establish branches of government and their roles 2. Clearly divide powers between levels of government 3. Establish ‘Bills of rights’ 4. Establish amendment procedures ii. Has legal force but also compromises conventions (practices) which are not legallybinding b. Unwritten constitution: i. An un-codified set of rules based on conventions and sporadic legal documents (e.g. Magna Carta in Great Britain) ii. Best example: the U.K. c. Written constitution i. Largely codified although there may be some conventions ii. Subject to much judicial interpretation iii. Best example: the U.S. d. The Canadian Constitution i. Blend of 'unwritten' and 'written' styles 1. Unwritten: conventions inherited from U.K. such as role of Prime Minister and Cabinet 2. Written: a. British North America Act 1867 (now known as Constitution Act 1867) and amendments made from 1867 to 1982 established the divisions of powers between the federal government and the provinces b. Statute of Westminster 1931- took Canada out of British colonial status and Canadian Parliament essentially became independent c. Constitution Act 1982 (including Charter of Rights and Freedoms). Finally codified an amendment formula, gave the provinces more powers, established a true Canadian bill of rights which was superior to the 1960 Bill of Rights which only affected the Canadian federal government. Was also never signed by Quebec (but Quebec is legallybound by it) d. Meech Lake Accord (1987) was an attempt to bring Quebec into the 'constitutional fold'; it would have given Quebec recognition as a 'distinct society' within Canada and decentralized Canada further; it failed to be ratified in 1990 e. The Charlottetown Accord (1992) was essentially 'Meech Lake 2' but it would have given Canadians an elected Senate, a 'Social Charter' and Aboriginal self- government as well; it failed in the referendum of Oct. 1992 9. International Politics a. Contains a lot of differing viewpoints i. State-centric approach (realist) 1. Sees the sovereign nation-state as the dominant unit in international relations 2. Sees the world as anarchic 3. Sees nation-states as self-contained and self-interested actors 4. International order through common rules which benefit states is viewed as the ideal ii. Non-state-centric approach (Liberal) 1. Sees nation-states as less than unitary actors (states often do not speak with one voice or follow consistent goals 2. Sees non-governmental organizations (NGOs) as relatively autonomous actors in the international arena 3. International co-operation among states, sub-state governments and NGO's is viewed as the ideal iii. Multi-Polar world system 1. Several strong states which dominate the international arena 2. Existed in 1914 3. Supporters of this viewpoint argue that since the early 1990's, the world is once again multi-polar iv. Bi-Polar World System 1. Two states which dominate the international arena and are rivals for power 2. Existed from 1945-1991 3. Supporters argue that a new bi-polar world is emerging between the U.S. and China v. Uni-Polar world system 1. One dominant state in the international arena 2. Supporters argue that the U.S. is the sole 'superpower' in the world today b. International Concerns: i. War and Terrorism - this is a constant threat; we can still blow up the world ii. Economics - globalization (the global nature of economics) means that states must increasingly co-operate to benefit from economic growth; free trade is both a cause and a consequence of globalization; many international organizations are basically economic in nature eg. OPEC, NAFTA, IMF and GATT iii. Environment - pollution crosses over national borders; problem: will the developing world co-operate? iv. Human Issues - immigration, human rights, labour mobility, refugees, women's issues IDEOLOGY 1. Ideology a. Value or belief system accepted as truth by a group or by an individual b. It is a worldview (German: weltanschauung) c. Political Ideology - beliefs about governmental/political activity i. Mostly normative in nature (what 'ought to be') ii. Can be simple or complex iii. Can be founded on knowledge (what can be proven to be true) and opinions (what may be true but is not proven) iv. Usuallyan organized and logical set of beliefs Most people do not really have an ideology according to the above criteria: their beliefs are too fragmented and are logically inconsistent and their belief systems are easily destroyed when closely examined. However, many people do hold genuine ideologies. 2. Liberalism: liberal (Latin: liber) meaning free, freedom, and giving. Was first used in a political sense during the Napoleonic period a. Philosophical background: John Locke (1637-1704); Adam Smith (1723- 90); American Founding Fathers; John Stuart Mill(1806-73) b. Main ideas: i. Humans are responsible (basically‘good’) by nature; ii. Personal freedom (to do anything so long as it does not directly hurt anyone else); iii. Limited gov't; iv. Equality of right; v. Consent of the governed (popular sovereignty) c. Classical liberalism (Locke, Smith) i. Freedom as the absence of coercion ('negative liberty' - 'freedom from') ii. Private property (laissez-faire economics) iii. Minimalstate ('night watchman state') iv. Allare equal before the law v. Popular sovereignty (although universal suffrage is not necessary - a property based franchise is enough) vi. Historical reasons for classical liberalism: 1. Opposition to absolute monarchy; 2. The need for religious tolerance; 3. Desire to own property and use it (capitalism) - which was difficult in feudal Europe ('life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness'); 4. Wish to eliminate elitist laws and medieval 'caste' system; 5. The wish to live lives uncontrolled by outside influences (eg. Church) and the belief that uncontrolled individuals know what is best for themselves; 6. The desire to prevent the state from interfering with the market d. Reform liberalism (began in late 19th Century: T.H. Green, J. Dewey, J.M. Keynes) i. Freedom as absence of coercion and the means to enjoy it ('positive liberty' -'freedom to') ii. Private property but market heavily regulated by the state ('Keynesianism') iii. Large state (welfare state) which can create 'positive liberty' iv. Equality of opportunity as well as equality before the law v. Popular sovereignty vi. Historical reasons for reform liberalism: 1. The need for social justice as markets began to produce vast extremes between rich and poor; 2. The need to soften 'boom and bust' cycles of the market; 3. The desire to eliminate property based voting (which favoured the rich); 4. The need to ward off radical socialism/communism and thus keep 'negative liberties' intact e. Liberal Party in Canada - originally classical liberal; by mid-20th Century became reform liberal f. Conservatives and U.S. Republicans - mostly classical liberal g. Today's true 'classical liberals' are 'libertarians' like Milton Friedman (economist) and Robert Nozick (political philosopher); in U.S., 'liberalism' means 'reform liberalism' NOTE: modern classical liberalism is often called ‘neo-liberalism’ 3. Conservatism: 'conserve' - save, keep the same, keep from being destroyed a. Philosophical background: Aristotle 4th Century BC, Christian thinkers, Edmund Burke (1729-97) b. Main ideas: i. Humans are flawed by nature (no earthly paradise is obtainable); ii. What is proven by experience is vital for knowledge; iii. Abstract reasoning is not productive and may lead to tyranny eg. French Revolution; iv. Progress must be evolutionary not revolutionary; v. Traditions, conventions and customs must be the guide to the best life possible - the past is key to the future; vi. Political order is vital; vii. Public virtue is paramount c. Essentially, modern conservatism is not a pure ideology: it only takes its form as a reaction to liberalism. E. Burke was a harsh critic of liberalism, especially the liberalism of the French Revolution, which he believed led to the Terror. However, Burke agreed with many liberal ideas such as limited suffrage, limited monarchical power and private property (although he was not a supporter of laissez-faire economics). d. History of 'conservatism': i. Pre-17th Century - feudalism/traditionalism in Europe (most of the world was 'conservative' as things barely changed after the Agricultural Revolution circa 10 thousand years ago); strong notions of hierarchy ii. 18th Century - Burkian conservatism - a mix of some liberal ideas with strong residues of feudal traditionalism iii. 20th and 21st Centuries - 'conservatism' is now largely 'classical liberalism', especiallyin an economic sense; 'neo-conservatives' wish to go back to an earlier sense of public morality ('social conservatism') and the political and economic framework of the late 19th Century in the West (except on the suffrage issue) i.e. before reform liberalismhad reshaped the political landscape; they favour: 1. Deregulation; 2. Privatization; 3. Less gov't debt; 4. Small gov't bureaucracy; 5. Religion; 6. Nuclear familye.g. Reagan, Thatcher, S. Harper iv. Others have been critical of the laissez-faire market in the Burkian tradition; these 'conservatives' believe government has a large role to play to protect the poor - known as 'Red Tories' or 'Christian Democrats' v. 'Conservatives’ of the pre-modern type continue to exist in places like Iran and Saudi Arabia vi. Islamic extremism/'fundamentalism' is essentially a reaction to (Western) liberalism vii. In Canada, the Conservative Party is 'neo-conservative' viii. The old PC Party was once 'Red Tory' but changed to a mixture of 'neo-conservatism' and 'reform liberalism' by 1970's Note: there is much overlap between ‘neo-conservatism’ and ‘classical liberalism’ (neo-liberalism) but less with libertarianism 4. Socialism: The basic notion is a political society based on co-operation a. Philosophical background: i. Plato (4th Century BC), ii. Thomas More (16th Century), iii. 'Utopian Socialists' (early 19th Century), iv. Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels (mid to late 19th Century), v. 'Anarchist Socialists' - Bakunin and Proudhon (19th Century), vi. V. I. Lenin (early 20th Century) b. Main ideas: i. Humans are co-operative by nature or can easily made to be co- operative; ii. Planning; iii. Common ownership; iv. Equality of result; v. International brotherhood of man The most influential socialist was Karl Marx (1818-1883). Most of what we now refer to as 'socialism' is directly traceable to the ideas of Marx. c. Marxism i. All politics is the result of economic structures (the 'mode of production') ii. History is marked by class struggle which is a product of economic conflict iii. The dominant 'mode of production' is currently the capitalist system: it produces and is characterized by two antagonistic classes – 1. The bourgeoisie (those who own the means of production and control the state) 2. The proletariat (those workers who must sell their labour power on the open market - mainly the industrial working class) iv. Capitalism is plagued by contradictions: too much is produced and not enough is consumed since the workers are increasinglytoo poor to buy products v. In time, capitalism will collapse as almost the whole society becomes proletarianized vi. Masses of impoverished workers will seize the capitalist state and set up a 'dictatorship of the proletariat' vii. The masses will create a rational planned socialist state which will be more humane and efficient than the capitalist system viii. Within a short time period, the state will 'wither away' (it will no longer be required) ending the period of 'socialism' 5. Communism: a. 'Marx's communism' i. After the state (gov't) disappears, there will be very little conflict - just the 'administration of things' ii. Society willbe classless; people willtotally co-operate iii. There will be no division of labour: wealth will be plentiful and so people willbe able to work at whatever pleases them iv. There will be no greed and no scarcity: 'from each according to his ability, to each according to his need' Marx's notion of 'communism' sounds like a 'utopia' (no place), but Marx insisted that his vision was 'scientific' and would come to pass. Therefore the question was: did workers need to organize and create socialism/communism or would it happen without the conscious effort of anyone? It appeared that some effort was needed, so even in Marx's lifetime, workers began to organize politically. b. History of the Marxist movement: i. First International (1864-72): split into Marxist and anarchist wings ii. Second International (1889) 1. Large meetings produced socialist parties all over Europe 2. Most parties resolved themselves to seize the capitalist state by the ballot box and not by revolution 3. By the outbreak of WW1 (1914), there was a split into those who supported the war (the social democratic parties) and those who did not (the Leninist camp) c. Leninism i. Begun as Marxism to get rid of capitalism. 1. Stalinism 2. Maoism 3. Others ii. V. I. Lenin and his Russian Communist Party took over Russia in 1917 by violent means iii. Russia was not expected to become socialist since it had barely achieved capitalism iv. Lenin felt that the capitalist stage could be skipped in Russia v. Ironically, Lenin's group was the only party of the 2nd International to achieve lasting success vi. Main points: 1. Authoritarian party discipline; 2. Revolutionary; 3. Secretive; 4. Strict state planning; 5. One-party state; 6. Swift punishment for offenders d. Social Democracy: by the mid-20th Century most social democratic parties eg. Labour in the U.K. and the Social Democrats in Germany, gave up the goal of achieving 'socialism' in order to win more votes - which they did; many formed governments in several European countries but did not destroy capitalism i. Main points: 1. Similar to reform liberalism; 2. Committed to free elections and pluralism; 3. At most, desire a slow evolution to socialism; 4. Strong notion of a mixed economy; 5. Strongly support unionized labor e. Stalinism i. An extreme version of Leninism created by J. Stalin (means 'steel'), dictator of the USSR from the late 1920's to 1953 ii. Based on a 'cult of personality' iii. Nationalist f. Maoism i. An extreme version of Leninism created by Mao Tse-Tung, dictator of Red China from 1949 to 1976 ii. Based on a 'cult of personality' iii. Stresses role of peasants in creating socialism Union of Soviet (Council) Socialist Republics was just that - a 'socialist' federal union; the Communist Party of the Soviet Union only claimed to be 'building communism'. g. The Canadian New Democratic Party originally started out as the pseudo- Marxist Co-operative Commonwealth Federation in 1933. By 1961, the party (now the NDP) was clearly a social democratic party. It remains one today. h. With the fall of 'communism' in 1989-1991 in Eastern Europe and the USSR, many 'communist' (Leninist) parties disbanded. Many quickly changed into social democratic parties. A Leninist party remains strong in Russia. 6. Fascism a. Almost a 'religion of nationalism': it sees the individual as secondary to the nation b. Sees the nation as indivisible: all groups and classes must be harmonious (all must be done for the good of the whole) c. Dictatorship: by a party and a leader d. Can be imperialistic (Italy and Germany were; Spain and Portugal were less so); also usuallystrongly protectionist (but pro-capitalist) e. Strongly anti-Marxist and anti-liberal f. World War 2 largely discredited this ideology What was 'National Socialism' (Nazism)? • technically, Nazism was not really fascist because it is based more on the idea of 'race' than 'nation'; however, German Nazis always felt a tension between the above concepts, leading A. Hitler and others to declare that the Germans were the highest expression of the 'Aryan' (white) race - (so they were nationalistic fascists after all) • Nazism has been called a 'conservative' (reactionary) philosophy; a 'populist' philosophy (anti- big gov't, anti-big labour and anti-big business mass movement); a 'socialist' philosophy; and a 'fascist' philosophy - about the only thing it has not been associated with is liberalism 7. Feminism: ideology which centers on the position of women in society a. Main idea: women are disadvantaged in society and lack political power b. Types of 'feminism': i. Liberal feminism: (M. Wollstonecraft-1792, J.S. Mill-1869, 'suffragettes'-late 1800's to early 1900's) 1. Also known as the 'first wave of feminism' 2. Women should have equal legal rights e.g. right to vote 3. Accepts that women may work or hold public office but does not insist on it; it is still consistent with a sexual division of labor (women work at home; men outside of the home) 4. Accepts that women are men are different in certain ways eg. Women better childcare providers; men better at physical labor, but that these differences do not justify unequal laws 5. Is supportive of the basic family unit with wives treated as equals by husbands 6. Struggle for equal legal rights largely achieved in West 7. Some 'reform liberal feminists' wish to see the state use its power to correct abuses eg. More public shelters for battered women; employment equity programmers; more emphasis on cultural change; some refer to these as ‘radical feminists’ 8. Most Canadians are 'liberal feminists' whether the realize it or not ii. Socialist feminism (Fourier, Marx, Engels) 1. Women are enslaved by men (are men's property) in the way the proletariat is enslaved by the capitalist class 2. Socialism will free women from household duties as wealth increases; they will be seen as valuable additions to the workforce 3. In communist countries, women did enter the workforce in large numbers, but few women made it to the top positions of leadership in those countries iii. Extreme feminism (S. Firestone, S. Brownmiller, V. Solanas) - some call this ‘radical feminism’ 1. Idea of embedded 'patriarchy' (women’s oppression is the fundamental form of all oppression) 2. Men control money (and the family) and have political power - they discriminate against women and attack them through rape and pornography 3. Some solutions (not all agree with all of the following): abolish the 'patriarchal system' by abolishing the traditional family; women must be freed from their biological roles as child bearers; artificial insemination, abortion and lesbianism should be encouraged; communes of women should be established - political power willthen drain away from men 4. There is often some cross-over with 'socialist feminism' and ‘reform liberal feminism’ 5. Most Western women have rejected the extremist ideology but many 'radical' ideas have become more acceptable: eg. public child care; women-run rape crisis centers; public access to abortion; suspicion of the traditional family 6. When people say they are not 'feminist', they usually mean the extremist brand of it 8. Environmentalism: Sees the natural environment as paramount a. Conservationist environmentalists i. Wish to preserve the environment; do not want all resources to be fair game for the market economy e.g. National parks ii. Main idea: take care of the environment better and we will have resources for future growth iii. Supports voluntary recycling and replanting programs iv. Supports some government regulation v. Many of us are now at least 'conservationist environmentalists' b. Reform liberal environmentalists i. Main idea: we must take care of the environment for our own health; strong government intervention is often needed to do so ii. We must avoid the 'tragedy of the commons' (for example, everyone pollutes the air because we rationalize that our polluting alone causes the costs to be less than the benefits of polluting: the problem is, when everyone does this, the costs do outweigh the benefits) through governments which can strongly regulate the environment and punish offenders or 'free market environmentalism' which argues that more natural resources should be made private so people willlook after them properly c. Deep ecology environmentalists i. Radical 'human welfare ecologists' ii. Main idea: environment is an end in itself - we have no right to exploit it iii. Anti-materialistic (reject both capitalismand socialism) iv. Believe strongly in animal rights/liberation, rain forest preservation, organic foods, vegetarianism v. Often characterized as 'tree-huggers' NOTE: An organization such as Greenpeace would have elements of all three groups above. FORMS OF GOVERNMENT Classifying government is an ancient idea and practice One ancient Greek classification: (based on who rules, and how) How is rule conducted? Who rules? Lawful (Common Good) Lawless (Private Interest) One Monarchy Tyranny Few Aristocracy Oligarchy Many Polity Democracy NOTE: Ancient Greeks such as Plato and Aristotle had a low opinion of 'democracy' (people rule); public concerns. In this way, 'democracy' usually made a city-state weak and decadent and thereforeled over vulnerable to attack from other city-states. 1. Liberal democracy a. 'Democracy’ (Greek - people rule) b. Not very precise: most modern states claim or claimed to be 'democratic' eg. German Democratic Republic c. Main idea: majority rule - what the majority of people want shall be done d. In the West, 'democracy' is intimately connected with 'liberalism'to produce 'liberal democracy' (constitutional democracy) e. There is a tension between 'democracy' (majority rule) and 'liberalism' (individual rights and freedoms): majorities can easily vote to nullify the freedom of individuals or minority groups ('tyranny of the majority' that the Ancient Greeks also feared; remember that Socrates was condemned to death because he was unpopular in democratic Athens) f. Therefore, 'liberal democracies' temper majoritarianism with safeguards for individual rights g. Main ideas: i. Equality of political rights: constitutional safeguards for rights eg. billof rights ii. Majority rule. Can include: unanimity (100%); pure majoritarianism (51%); qualified majoritarianism (eg. 67%); concurrent majorities (mutual territorial or social group vetoes); bicameralism (two legislatures must give consent) iii. Political participation 1. Direct democracy: ('town hall meetings', referendums, initiatives, recall) 2. Indirect democracy: (representative democracy) 3. Most Western states are mostly representative in nature, with some uses of direct democracy iv. Political freedom 1. Right to peacefullyoppose those in power 2. Periodic elections h. Types of 'liberal democracies': i. 'Pluralist' (R. Dahl) 1. Open competition between groups for political goals 2. No one group or party consistently dominates the state; Dahl's 'polyarchy' 3. State is not autonomous: it is an 'arena' only 4. Power well dispersed in society 5. Classic example: the U.S. ii. 'Neo-corporatist' (P. Schmitter) 1. State favours certain groups over others: these groups are represented in the state and are usually influenced by a relatively autonomous state 2. Main actors: the state, 'peak' business and labour groups (and parties representing these groups) 3. Limited competition in an attempt to create economic order but much protection for liberty 4. Classic example: Germany iii. Consociationalism' (A. Lijphart) 1. Anti-majoritarian ('elite accommodation') 2. Deeply divided or 'segmented' societies on ethnic, religious, linguistic lines, although may be dispersed throughout the country a. 'Segmental autonomy' ('segments' have certain functions which the state must leave alone); b. 'Proportionality’ ('segments' are to be all proportionallyrepresented in government); c. Mutual veto' (each 'segment' can veto decisions affecting it); d. 'Grand coalitions' ('segmental' parties are to co- operate in government by forming governing coalitions) e. Classic example: the Netherlands f. NOTE: Canada is mainly a 'pluralist' liberal democracy although we have been called 'semi- consociationalist' (S. Noel) - our 'segments' are 'French' and 'English' Canada. 2. Totalitarianism: The state totally dominates society in an attempt to radically transform it. a. C. Friedrich and Z. Brzezinski's definition: i. An official ideology; ii. Single party state led by one person; iii. Terroristic police state; iv. State communications monopoly; v. State weapons monopoly; vi. Centrallydirected economy b. Main examples: USSR under Stalin, Nazi Germany c. Anti-pluralistic d. Acts in the name of the 'people' eg. mass rallies e. Propaganda essential to it f. State above law g. Usuallydespotic (rule based on coercion) h. North Korea the last totalitarian state left 3. Authoritarianism: similar to totalitarianism but less state control and less radical or utopian a. Right-wing authoritarianism i. Conservative in nature ii. Fairly tolerant of a pluralistic society and a market economy iii. ‘Statist’: 'state corporatism' - state dominates official groups eg.labour, business iv. Anti-socialist v. Militaristic vi. Examples: many Latin American countries, South Korea before 1988, Taiwan before mid- 1990's, Iran, b. Left-wing authoritarianism i. Lean towards socialismand nationalism ii. Gentler, kinder form of totalitarianism iii. Militaristic iv. Examples: Libya, Syria, Cuba, several African countries c. Separation of powers - political power is divided between executive (day to day governing); legislative (law-making); and judiciary (legal branch) i. Liberal democracies have different separation of powers 4. Parliamentary systems: Parliament - 'talk-shop', French: 'parle' A representative chamber, usuallybased on territorial 'ridings' (constituencies) a. Evolution of British Westminster model of Parliament: i. Middle Ages - power held mainly by aristocracy (lords) who force King (Queen) to make concessions to them eg. Magna Carta of 1215 ii. Late Middle Ages - King (Queen) has all power, Parliament (the earlier representative chambers of the aristocracy and commoners) is now largely advisory only iii. Early modern period - Parliament asserts itself; begins to challenge the monarch's laws and decisions iv. 1689 'Glorious Revolution' - Parliament fully takes legislative powers from monarch; is able to defeat monarch's decisions ('responsible government'); beginnings of independent judiciary after 1689 - King (Queen) becomes increasingly v. Symbolic figure; executive power taken over by Parliament; House of Lords begins to be secondary to House of Commons vi. 20th Century - the creation of a party system of gov't based on party discipline fuses legislative and executive power in the governing Parliamentary party; Prime Minister begins to become almost as powerful as monarchs had been in the late Middle Ages; House of Lords becomes almost powerless in practice; more independent judiciary but subordinate to Parliament vii. British model exported to British Empire: Canada has a parliamentary system based on the Westminster model (with an appointed Senate instead of an aristocratic House of Lords) NOTE: Canada is still a 'constitutional monarchy'; the Queen is still officially our head of state; she still rules the country (in theory) through her agent, the Governor-General. For example, the Governor- General must sign all bills for them to become law. He (she) must approve all government appointments. However, the Governor-General's approval is a 'rubber stamp'. b. There are parliamentary systems not based on the Westminster model, which are similar to it but are different eg. Germany (not based on constitutional monarchy) c. All parliamentary regimes have in common idea of 'responsible government' - the executive is responsible to the legislature; if those who hold the executive power lose the confidence of the legislature (51%+), the executive must resign (and a new one chosen from an existing Parliament or new elections called to create a
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