Textbook Notes (363,232)
Canada (158,276)
Prof (4)

Canadian 1 - Liberal Democracy.docx

5 Pages
Unlock Document

Western University
Political Science
Political Science 2230E

Citation Analysis must use Chicago Style – PDF on WebCT Outline for each class is on WebCT and if you can answer the questions on that outline you will be fine for the exam Fundamental Values of the Canadian Democracy  Based on Liberalist ideology  Classical vs reform vs neo liberalism What distinguishes one form of liberalism from another?  All forms share a set of values o Freedom, justice, equality etc o But there is disagreement amongst liberals about what these terms actually mean and how to go about achieving them. What is an Ideology?  Specific kind of theory with three basic characteristics o Incorporates a statement of ideal political values o Sets out the means by which those values and goals will be realized – how to put the vision of an ideal society in practice – a roadmap. o Ideology seeks to mobilize political action around its stated values and goals.  Normative blue prints about what the good society looks like  Marxism, feminism, socialism and liberalism are all ideologies. What is the difference between a democracy and a liberal democracy?  What does the concept of democracy entail? Ruled by the people, consent of the governed, self-government, self rule. o In Canada is achieved through representative government.  Important to distinguish between a democracy and a liberal democracy because what you can do in those two different democracies are very different.  Regular democracy requires 51 percent of the votes in a voting situation. o Presents a problem called the tyranny of the majority – liberalism tempers this problem in democratic theory  In Canada, individuals and groups have rights and there is a concern in liberal democracy about the tyranny of the majority and the oppression of the minority. Fundamental values of liberalism and of the Canadian Political System  Freedom o Overriding value of liberalism is freedom of the individual o Why? Because human beings are unique to other beings because we possess the capacity for reason, logic and rationality.  Gives us the ability to critically reflect and evaluate options about how we want to live our lives – to determine their own conception of a valuable life.  For liberals this is what makes human beings distinguishable. o The freedom of the individual must be protected, respected and our capacity to reflect and evaluate should be given room to flourish. 1 o In liberal theory this process of rationally assessing our life goals and putting them into action is called self- actualization. o How do we create this freedom for individuals to achieve self- actualization – this is where liberals disagree.  Equality  Justice What is Classical Liberalism and what are its Guiding Principles?  Classical Liberalism’s form of Freedom o Conceived of in negative terms  The freedom to be left alone – non interference, absence of coercion “freedom from” as opposed to “freedom to” o The individual has to be given the widest possible scope of non interference  Less interference, more freedom  More interference, less freedom  Classical Liberals form of State o Non interference from the government – the state is a necessary evil  We must have a state in order to protect freedom and ensure non-interference between citizens.  In order to do this, the state makes laws and is backed up by police and army – ability to interfere in peoples lives.  For classical liberals, the state is a high risk because of its potential ability to interfere and who will prevent the state from interfering? o Their answer comes in terms of the Limited State  The state and state interference has to be constrained.  The smallest state possible that regulates as little as possible and therefore interferes as little as possible in the lives of citizens.  How to achieve the limited state? Public/Private distinction  Split into two realms – public realm and private realm (civil society)  The private realm is were people will lead their lives and make their decisions – it is imperative that the state does not interfere in the private realm which is where individuals achieve self actualization.  Rights is another way to achieve the limited state  Individual rights – Charter of Rights in Canada.  The charter can only be used against the state; it cannot be used against another private individual.  Charter rights erect a wall between the state and the individual and the private and public realm.  Classical Liberals form of Market o Should be organized in the form of laissez faire economics o Classical liberals are more concerned with economic freedom which is explained by the fact that classical liberals believed material well being was the best measure of human happiness. 2 o The best way to achieve human happiness is to allow unrestricted activity in the economy – capitalism and unregulated market o The state should stay out of the market as much as possible. o Classical liberals accept some interference in the market. When?  State has to step in to enforce contracts and ensure the market is functioning properly.  State will step in to enforce property laws that will protect the wealthy against the mob  State can step in to protect citizens from physical harm.  Classical Liberals Form of Equality o Equality is conceived of as equality of right (formal equality). o Liberals agree that their has to be
More Less

Related notes for Political Science 2230E

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.