Dominant Approaches to Global Politics reading jan 15.docx

6 Pages
Unlock Document

Western University
Political Science
Political Science 2231E
Donald Abelson

Dominant Approaches to Global Politics: Realism Kegley and Blanton: 21-27 • THEORY- a set of hypotheses postulating the relationship btwn variables or conditions advanced to describe, explain or predict phenomena and make prescriptions about how to pursue particular goals and follow ethical principles …includes probably consequences etc and often guides leaders • PARADIGM- meaning an example, a model or essential pattern; a paradigm structures thought about an area of inquiry; from the greek someone can look at something • Theory implications for leaders: o Diagnostic value- assess issues they face by facilitating their ability to iscern patterns and focus on important causal factors o Prescriptive value- provides a framework for conceptualizing strategies and policy responses o Lesson drawing value- facilitates critical assessment so that policy makers reach accurate conclusions about the successes and failures of a policy • Focus on balance of power thru military, all about self int • NEOCONSERVATIVE- poli movement in theUS calling for the use of military and econ power in foreign policy to bring freedom and democracy to other countries…pivotal in the US going to war in Iraq in 2003 • REALISM- a paradigm based on the premise that world politics is essentially and unchangeably a struggle among self int states for power and position under anarchy with each competing state pursuing its own national int o The oldest school of thought dating to Peloponnesian war in ancient Greece; Thucydides writings; hobbes; machiavell • States are sovereign and no other power is above them; no world authority; struggle for power; responsible for own survival • SELF HELP- the principle that bc in international anarchy all global actors are independent they must rely on themselves to provide for their security and well being… bc of anarchy • Might coop for common int • RELATIVE GAINS- conditions in which some participants in coop interactions benefit more than othrs • Mach- we are selfish and it should be the same with realism for states; want to avoid danger • Promote NATIONAL INTEREST- goals that states pursue to maximize what they perceive to be selfishly best for their country ; hobbes and mach said to pursue self int • If you want peace prepare for war • SECURITY DILEMMA- states view the defensing arming of other countries as threatening; try to increase security, you decrease it • BALANCE OF POWER- theory that peace and stability are most likely to be maintained when mili power is distributed to prevent a single superpower hegemon or bloc from controlling the world; causes shifts in alliances • Might need to disregard morals for national int; Obama talking about sending additional troops to afghan said it was for threats to the American ppl • KELLOGG BRIAND PACT- multilateral treaty negotiated in 1928 that outlawed war as a method for settling interstate conflicts • Many see a pessimistic view of human nature ; st aug • Cold war supported the balance of power idea and both being selfish • NEOREALISM (structural realism)-Kenneth Waltz- explains state behaviour as determined by differences in their relative power within the global hierarchy defined primarily by the distribution of mili power, instead of by other factors such as their values, types of gov, or domestic circumstances o Competition • Classical realism focuses on the sources and uses of nationa power; structural realism referred to as defensive • DEFENSIVE REALISM- a variant of realist theory that emphasizes the preservation of power as opposed to the expansion of power, as an actors primary security objective • OFFENSIVE REALISM- in an anarchical int system, states should look for opportunities to gain power • Realists can be divided on issues as well – some say shutting down iran nuclear programme would benefit bc of end of threat, but some think it will increase said threat Variant View of int Systemic Primary state Rational state system pressure objective preference Defensive Very important Power buildup Survival Status quo realism to deter potential aggressors Offensive Very Emphasis on Survivial Revisionist extensive (hegemons accumulation of expected) power Classical Somewhat Either def or off Varies Status quo or revisionist neoclassical important Either def of off Varies (e.g. Status quo or security, power revisionist or glory) What is national interest? Hans morgenthau’s realist vision and American foreign policy- J. Peter Pham • Kissinger on the US foreign policy being bipolar o Serve values best b
More Less

Related notes for Political Science 2231E

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.