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Political Science
Political Science 2231E
Erika Simpson

Chapter 13 International Development Economic DevelopmentThe combined processes of capital accumulation rising per capita incomes the increasing of skills in the population the adoption of new technological styles and other related social and economic changesMost of the global south made profess in economic development in the 1970s with real per capita GDP growth of almost 3 percent annuallyThis rate was a higher than the global northIn 1980s economic development halted with the exception of AsiaPer capita GDP decreased from 1981 to 1991 in Latin America Africa and the Middle East o While china had a 7 annual growth 1990a real economic growth reached to about 56 annually as a whole and even higher in chinaIn the 200s growth accelerated in the south and now out paces the northEconomic liberals tend to favour the concentration of capital as a way to spur investment rather than consumptionCapitalists favour development paths that tie states of the south to the world economic and international trade o They argue that although such development strategies defer equity they maximise efficiency o Once a developing state has a selfsustaining cycle of accumulation it can better redress poverty in the broad population Human Development IndexAn alternative measure of development to GDPMeasures a countrys achievement in areas of life expectancy at birth knowledge adult literacy school enrollment and standard of living The United Nations Development Programme publishes annual Human Development reports that compare HDI rankingsCritical theorist argue that meaningful development should improve the positions of the whole population and the poor o Advocate a more equitable distribution of wealth o Do not see the northsouth disparities as justified by global growth benefits o Favour political actions to shift income In reality most countries use a combination of critical theorist and economic liberalsWelfare capitalism distributes enough wealth to meet the basic needs of many while letting most wealth move freely in capitalist marketsThe Newly Industrializing Countries Have achieved selfsustaining capital accumulation with impressive economic growth
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