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Political Science
Political Science 2237E
Douglas Long

Reading: Aristotle's Politics October-30-12 1:03 PM Book I: The household and the City A: The Political Association and Its Relation to Other Associations Chapter 1 - "all association have ends: the political association has the highest; but the principle of association expresses itself in different forms, and through different modes of government"  Observation shows us: 1) that every city (polis) is a species of association (p.175) 2. That all associations come into being for the sake of some good- for all men do all their acts with a view to achieve something which is, in their view, a good  Therefore, all associations aim at some good  One association that is most sovereign of all and includes all the rest will pursue this aim the most (to achieve the most good) and will be directed to the most sovereign of all goods  This most sovereign and inclusive association is the city (polis) or the political association  Incorrect view of the difference between people such as a statesman, monarch, manager and master is by the number of people in which he deals: a few is to a master, a bit more is to a manager and a large amount is to the statesman and monarch; however this doesn't make a good enough difference for this view doesn't decipher well enough the difference between a large household and a small city (p.175-176)  We must consider analytically the elements of which a city is composed as well as the major city o We will gain a better insight into the way in which these differ from one another (p.176) Chapter 2  "to distinguish the different forms of association we must trace the development successively of the association of the household, that of the village, and that of the city or polis. The polis, or political association, is the crown: it completes and fulfills the nature of man: it is thus natural to him and he is himself "naturally a polis-animal": it is prior to him, in the sense that is the presupposition of his true and full life" 1. There must be a union of pairing of those who cannot exist without one another (p.176)  Male and female must unite for the reproduction of the species- not from deliberate intention, but from the natural impulse, which exists to leave behind them something of the same nature as themselves 2. There must necessarily be a union of the naturally ruling element with the element which is naturally ruled for the preservation of both (p.176)  The element which is able by virtue of its intelligence to exercise forethought is naturally a ruling and master element  The element which is able by virtue of its bodily power to do the physical work is the ruled element, which is naturally in a state of slavery  Both have a common interest  Female and slave are naturally distinguished because when made the instrument is most perfectly made when it serves a single purpose and not a variety of purposes (p.176)  Among Barbarians, female and slave occupy the same position, the reason being that no naturally ruling element exists among them (p.176)  The assumption being that barbarians and slaves are by nature one and the same and should be ruled by the Greeks (p.176)  The first form of association naturally instituted for the satisfaction of daily recurrent needs is thus the family  The next form of association is the village(p.176)  The most natural form of the village appears to be that of a colony (or offshoot) from the family Called "suckling's of the same milk" or "sons and the sons of sons"   This is the reason why cities were originally ruled: for ever household is monarchically governed by the eldest of the kin  The final and perfect association is the city (polis) (p.177)  Said to reached the height of full self-sufficiency  It exists for the sake of a good life  For this reason every city exists by nature, just as did the earlier
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