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Western University
Political Science
Political Science 3314E
Radoslav Dimitrov

INSTITUTIONS MATTER – INTERNATIONAL NEGOTIATION INTRODUCTION  Negotiation analysis mostly concentrates on face-to-face constellations between two or more negotiators who’s emotions determine the outcome of the negotiation process  Want to concentrate hence all those factors that influence a negotiator’s action besides personal qualities  Negotiations and decision making are central to pluralistic and representative democracies in a wide range of political bodies  The public itself not present but is represented  EU the so called first pillar which is mainly the single common market, is characterized by collective governance where the community institutions play an ever more important role  Second and third pillars are intergovernmental by nature they are characterized by cooperation among and concentration wit the individual governments as main actors  Negotiations within the Eu are facilitated by the existence of a supranational institutional framework that creates stable communications through repetitive games with the same players, facilitates the information flow, improves decision making through the existence of stable procedures that make expectations more calculable, promotes the community spirit and stabilizes the implementation of decisions and if necessary, sanctions deviations  They are in direct interaction and produce decisions continuously rather than occasionally  Analysis of decision processes in assemblies has become a multidisciplinary enterprise  Assembly negotiations function as a pool of different interests of their members that should eventually lead to a common policy  The decision process takes place in a given framework, in which the decision makers pursue their interests FRAMEWORK  Internal conditions are related to the assembly itself and the external determinants stem from a broader set of norms derived from the political community as a whole STRUCTURE AND CONDITION  The size of assemblies  The size of an assembly effects its structure as a working unit. From organizational theory and empirical observations we can establish a number of hypothesis  Hypothesis 1: the bigger the assembly the more it becomes organizationally differentiated (committees, and subcommittees)  Hypothesis 2: the smaller the assembly the higher the ballot’s value or weight for each individual under unchanged voting procedures  Hypothesis 3: the higher the number of participants, the higher the costs of producing consensus (internal costs) and the less are the disadvantages for the individual voter (external risks)  Disadvantages for an individual actor would arise if he were victim of a tyranny of the majority  Duration: Hypothesis 4: the less time is available the easier it is in a system of majority voting for leading majorities to win  Composition: Hypothesis 5: subgroups within an assembly can, by forming coalitions with others, reach a majority position and minimize the influence of an existing majority. Minorities can also benefit from a situation in which where more majority groups of equal size with opposing views counterbalance their weight and have to rely on the support of smaller parties  Representivity: Hypothesis 6: Decisions are more likely to be stable when an assembly is highly representative, consensual and unpressured to decide. The follow-up costs are usually lower  Ideological and Programmatic Orientation: Hypothesis 7: the ideological and or programmatic proximity of organized member groups reduces the spectrum of controversial alternatives and leads to coalitions. This pro
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