Hinton Ch3- Genocide- its political uses in the 20th Century, Leo Kuper

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Western University
Political Science
Political Science 4426F/G
James S Quinn

Hinton Ch 3 - Genocide: It's Political Use in the 20th Century, Leo Kuper September-28-10 6:45 PM • Convention Preamble o Genocide is an "odious scourge which has inflicted great losses on humanity in all periods of history • Assyrian obliteration of cities, Rome and Carthage, Greece and Troy • Religion & Genocide o Religious differences may be the driving force in genocidal conflict o May define the lines along which other conflict erupt • Religion may provide the fuel o The Crusades, the Inquisition • Our Era: Colonization & Decolonization o Faith in political ideology and religion serves as a motivating factor for genocide o Major arena for contemporary genocidal conflict and massacre is found within the sovereign state • It is a phenomenon of the plural society o Sartre on Genocide (US in Vietnam) • Since the blatant aggression of colonial conquests kindles the hatred of the civilian population and since the civilians are potentially rebels and soldiers, the colonial troops maintain their authority by perpetual massacres  Aimed at the destruction "of part on an ethnic, national, or religious group" so to terrorize the remainder and to wrench apart the indigenous society • Are therefore genocidal characters • Qualification that in situations where there is an infrastructural contradiction arising from the dependence of the colonizers on the labour of the colonized, there are restraints on the extent of the physical destruction of local populations  Argues that colonization cannot take place without systematically liquidating all the characteristics of the native society o Cultural Genocide • Term should be reserved for a deliberate policy to eliminate a culture • The "borrowing" of cultural aspects inherent to colonization is not automatically genocidal o Enduring nature of Colonized vs Colonizer • Struggle to impose and maintain political control is generally accompanied by appropriation of land and other productive resources, giving rise to systematic political ad economic exploitation, supported by justifying ideologies  This may have the effect of separating colonizer and colonized into almost distinct species • Slaughter of the Herero in West Africa by Germany in 1904 o Idea of religion as the main factor in motivating genocidal acts has been replaced by totalitarian political ideologies • Pol Pot in Cambodia, Nazis o Technological change can also facilitate genocidal acts • Atom bomb on Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Vietnam • The Genocide Convention o Before the Convention, persecuting genocidal acts had been considered part of the law of nations • 1827: England, France, Russia intervened to end atrocities in the Greco-Turkish war • 1861: French intervened to stop religious atrocities in Lebanon • 1902: US remonstrated Romania "in the name of humanity" to stop Jewish persecution • 1915: France, Britain, Russia denounced Armenian massacres o Devastation of peoples by the Nazis that provided the impetus to make genocide an international crime against humanity o First formal recognition of "genocide" • 1945: Indictment of German war criminals at Nuremberg o Major Controversies in Committees • Groups to be protected • Question of intent  Paraguay and Aché  Brazil and Amazon Indians  US and Vietnam • Inclusion of cultural genocide  Thought it should be included in a convention on human rights (Western Bloc) • Problem of enforcement and punishment • Extent of destruction which would constitute genocide • Essential nature of the crime • Placing religion in parentheses suggested that nationality was always a f
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