Introduction to industrial/organizational psychology
Industrial/Organizational Psychology: A branch of psychology that applies the
principles of psychology to the workplace
I/O psychologists “enhance the dignity and performance of human beings, and the
organizations they work in, by advancing the science and knowledge of human
Differences between I/O and MBA programs
- I/O examines factors that affect the people in an organization as opposed to
the broader aspects of running an organization (marketing, transportation,
- Application of psychological principles is what best distinguishes I/O
psychology from related field typically taught in business schools
I/O psychology relies extensively on research, quantitative methods and
I/O psychologists act as scientists when they conduct research and as
practitioners when they work with actual organizations.
Goal: to increase productivity and well-being of employees
Individual approach: focuses on determining the competencies needed to perform
a job, staffing the organization with employees who have those competencies and
increasing those competencies through training.
Organizational approach: creates an organizational structure and culture that will
motivate employees to perform well, give them the necessary information to do
their jobs and provide working conditions that are safe and result in an enjoyable
and satisfying work/life environment
Personal Psychology: The field of study that concentrates on the selection and
evaluation of employees (analyzing jobs, recruiting applicants, selecting employees,
determining salary levels, training employees and evaluating employee
Organizational psychology: The field of study that investigates the behavior of
employees within the context of an organization.
Team building, restructuring and employee empowerment.
Human Factors: A field of study concentrating on the interaction between humans
and machines. They frequently work with engineers. History of I/O psychology
Army Alpha: an intelligence test developed during WW1 and used by the army for
soldiers who can read
Army Beta: an intelligence test developed during WW1 and used by the army for
soldiers who cannot read.
Hawthorne Studies: A series of studies, conducted at the Western Electric Plant in
Hawthorne, Illinois, that have come to represent any change in behaviour when
people react to a change in the environment. They were designed to investigate
such issues as the effects of lighting levels, work schedules, wages, temperature and
rest breaks on employee performance.
Hawthrone Effect: when employees change their behaviour due solely to the fact
that they are receiving attention or are being observed.
Bachelors, masters of PH’D
Masters degree takes between 1-2 years for completion
Undergraduate GPA of at least 3.0 and score of 1000 on Graduate Record Exam
GRE: Standardized admission test require by most psychology graduate schools
Terminal Master’s degree programs: Graduate programs that offer a master’s
degree but not Ph.D.
Ph.D programs are best suited for students who eventually want to teach, do
research or consult
3.5 GPA and 1200 GRE
Dissertation: A formal research paper required of most doctoral students in order
Hypothesis: An educated prediction about the answer to a research question
Theory: A systematic set of assumptions regarding the cause and nature of
Journals: A written collection of articles describing the methods and results of new
research. Unbiased and accurate information on a topic.
Trade Magazines: A collection of articles for those the in biz about related
professional topics, seldom directly reporting the methods and results of new
Magazines: An unscien