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Chapter 3

Psychology 2060 Chapter 3- job analysis.docx

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Psychology 2060
Meaghan Ross

Chapter # 3- JobAnalysis and Competency Models Meiorin Case -British Columbia Ministry of Forests, attack forest fighting crew -Two aspects of the researchers’methodology are critical • Primarily descriptive, based on measuring average performance levels of the test subjects and converting these data into minimum performance standards • Did not seem to distinguish between male and female test subjects -Employer’s goal is to hire an applicant who possess the knowledge, skills abilities or other attributes (KSAOs) to successfully perform a job -Properly conducted job analysis helps identify the KSAOs that are related to successful job performance -Also helps identify the duties that will be performance and the level of performance required What is JobAnalysis? -Process of collecting info about jobs by any method for any purpose -It is a systematic process for gathering, documenting and analyzing data about the work required for a job -Job analysis data includes: description of context and duties of the job, job responsibilities, working conditions, info about the knowledge skills abilities required 3 key points about job analysis • Does not refer to a single methodology but rather many techniques • Formal, structured process carries out under a set of guidelines established in advance • Breaks down a job into its parts, rather than looking at it as a whole KSAOs: knowledge, skills, abilities and other attributes necessary for a new employee to do well on the job; referred to as job/worker/employment specifications • Knowledge: body of info; factual or procedural, what a person needs to know to do a job • Skill: level of proficiency or competency to perform that task, what they know how to do • Ability: more general, enduring trait or capability; person’s capacity to do something or learn something • Other: personal attributes or characteristics (Ex. Related to personality) Job Description: written description of what a job occupant is required to do, how they are supposed to do it and the rationale for any required job procedures Job Specification: knowledge, skills abilities and other attributes that are needed by a job incumbent to perform well on the job Overview of JobAnalysis Process and Outcomes Data Sources  Types of Data  Job Description  HR Functions Supervisors Tasks, duties, skills, Tasks, duties Recruitment, selection, Employees abilities, knowledge, responsibilities Training and Develop, JobAnalyst responsibilities, standards, Performance appraisal, O*Net other characteristics, people Health, safety NOC things, information Compensation JAMethods   Job Specification Interviews, Questionnaires Knowledge, skills, abilities, other, physical demands, work enviro Observation, PAQ, FJA, FJAS, critical incidents Job Analysis and the Law -It is a legally acceptable way of determining hob relatedness -Bona Fide Occupational Requirement (BFOR): procedure used to defend a discriminatory employment practice or policy on the groups that the policy is job-related and was adopted in the honest and good faith belief that is was reasonably necessary to ensure the efficient and economic performance of the job Work and Worker-Oriented JobAnalysis • Work Oriented JobAnalysis: job analysis techniques that emphasize work outcomes and descriptions of the various tasks performed to accomplish those outcomes -Highly specific and may have little or no relationship to the content of jobs in other fields • Worker Oriented JobAnalysis: job analysis techniques that emphasize general aspects of jobs that describe perceptual, interpersonal, sensory, cognitive and physical activities -Generalize human behaviors involved, generic in nature, can be applied to make task dissimilar jobs Getting Started: Gathering Job Related Info -First step: collect existing info describing the target job from sources such as organizational charts, legal requirements, job descriptions, union regulations, previous data from related jobs -Job related info can be found in 2 occupational databases National Occupational Classifications (NOC) -systematically describes occupations in the Canadian labor market based on extensive occupation research -Presents both a description and a specification of the job occupations -Each job is given a 4 digit code, it describes a more extensive description related to KSAOs with the job Occupational Information Network (O*Net) -electronic database developed by the US department of labor -provides a framework that identifies the most important types of info about work and integrates them into a theoretical and empirical system -Job analysis typically involves a series of steps often beginning with interviews or observations that provide the info to construct a task inventory or to complete a structured questionnaire Job Analysis Methods -Job analysts carry out the job analysis Subject Matter Experts (SME): those who are most knowledgeable about a job and how it is currently performed -Generally they are job incumbents- the employees currently in the job and their supervisors -SME may also be trained to be job analysts Interviews -most commonly used technique for gathering job facts and establishing the tasks and behaviors that define a job -method involves questioning individuals or small groups of current employees and supervisors -People who are interviewed should have a good working knowledge of the job -May be structured or unstructured, structured produces better info -Structured interview is designed so that all interviewees are asked the same job related questions -The result of the interview should be a clear description of the job and its requirements -The more specific the interview outline is the more reliable the info obtained from the interviewees will be Disadvantages: expensive, time consuming and may be impractical for jobs with large number of incumbents, the may also require a substantial number of interviewees to be truly representative of the job incumbent pool Guidelines for a Job Analysis Interview 1. Announce the job analysis well ahead of the interview date 2. Participation in interviews should be voluntary, and incumbents should only be interviewed with permission of their supervisors 3. Interviews should be conducted in a private locations 4. Open the interview by establishing rapport with the employee, explain the purpose of the interview 5. Ask open-ended questions, use language that is easy to understand and all ample time for the employees response 6. Guide the session without being authoritative or over bearing Direct Observation -Most effective way to determine what effective employees do on the job is to observe their behavior -Direct observation is sometimes called job shadowing -Data is obtained firsthand, rather than indirectly through surveys and questionnaires -Most useful when job involves easily observable activities -Must be aware that observation may change the behavior of the employees -This effect can be minimized when the observer blends into the surroundings -The interview or observation data are used by the job analyst to identify critical task statements which are used to generate employee specifications Critical components of the job are described in terms of: 1. Collect Data -Observation or Interview • The actions performed • The people, data, or things affected by the actions 2. Use data to identify critical task statements (4) • The intended outcome, or the or the product of the action 3. Task statement described in • The materials, tools, and procedures used in performing the terms of KSAOs action -Once the task statements are identified, they are further described in terms of KSAOs that are required to perform the job successfully Rating Task Statements and KSAOs -Tasks are examples of work that employees perform as part of their jobs -Job analysis specific tasks are written in the form of task statements -Task statements provide a clear picture of what is being done, how it is being done and why it is being done Task statements should answer: (1) What action is being done (2) Whom or what is receiving the action- object of the action (3) What is the outcome of the action (4) What tools or equipment are used -All tasks are not equal -The job analyst asked the SME to rate the importance of the final set of task statements and their associated KSAPs -Generally SMEs rate each task with respect to frequency, importance and difficulty Structured JobAnalysis Questionnaires and Inventory -These require workers and other SMEs to respond to written questions about their jobs -Respondents are asked to make judgments about activities and tasks, tools, equipment and working conditions involved in a job -These can be off the shelf questionnaires and inventories used in many jobs; PAQ or they can be developed by an analyst for the specific job; task inventory PositionAnalysis Questionnaire (PAQ) -worker oriented, structured job analysis questionnaire that focuses on general behavi
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