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Chapter 5

Psychology 2060 psych Chapter 5 notes .doc

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Western University
Psychology 2060
Hayden Woodley

2060 Psychology Chapter 5 NotesPerformance ManagementJob performance is multidimensionalcomposed of task contextual and counterproductive behaviorsPerformance management or performance appraisal allows an organization to monitor the quality of its employeesPerformance managementSystem of measuring employee performancePerformance appraisalUsed to refer to the measurement of one employees performanceUses specific performance measurement techniques3 major purposes in doing performance appraisals1Administrative decisionsEvery organization needs systematic procedures in making decisionsDecisions affect life of employees and organization In Canada 40 of all employees or professional work in a unionized environmentcollective agreements regulate whether performance appraisals may be carried outPerformance appraisal data are often the basis for dismissing underperforming employees2Formative decisionsSupervisors provide feedback to their employees on their work performanceTell them if they are meeting expectations or if they need to develop additional skills or take more training to meet job demandsPerformance appraisals used to determine which areas require developmenttraining Appraisals for formative purposes not normally used for administrative decisions3Validation Research3rd main reason for performance appraisals is to obtain the data needed to validate employees selection proceduresOrganizations want to select best employee for any given jobTo do this use variety of selection instrumentsAbility tests Interviews or personality assessmentsSelection tools must be capable of predicting job performanceIn additionPerformance data can also be used for many other research purposesex Do employees who have been on the new training program show improved performance compared to their pretraining performanceDefining Job Performance Job performance Behavior the observable things people do that is relevant to accomplishing goals of an organizationJob performance is multidimensionalOne model of job performance one that is used in this chapterBreaks job behavior into 3 subcategories1Task performance2Contextual performance3Counterproductive performanceTask PerformanceIncludes direct production of goods and services Includes direct contribution to the efficient functioning of organizationIs the closest to traditional definitions of job performanceTask performance behaviors contribute to core activities of organizationInclude producing goods acquiring inventory and managing and administering the enterpriseContextual PerformanceClosely related to the notion of organizational citizenship behaviorIncludes both interpersonal job performance and job dedicationContributes to the culture and climate of organizationIt is the context in which organizations core activities take placeex Employee who is respectful to other employees and cooperates with them to make sure all their work gets done on time is being a good organizational citizenCounterproductive BehaviorIs the opposite of task and contextual performanceCounterproductive work behavior works against organizations goals and valuesIncludes both deviance and aggressionRange from taking time off to sabotaging equipment to employee theftCriteria Measures of job performance that attempt to capture individual differences among employees with respect to jobrelated behaviorsThey are performance standards for judging success or failure on he jobProvides guidance on the standards that must be met by someone placed into a jobMeasuring PerformanceIn reality we cannot measure every aspect of job performanceHave to concentrate on those we feel contribute the most to job successAny performance management system should include measures of task contextual and counterproductive behaviorsEffective Performance Measureshave to define the dimension we are measuring in terms of specific measurable activities or behaviorsSmith 1976Established general guidelines to help identify effective and appropriate performance measuresIdentified relevancy reliability and practicality as key components of any performance measure or criterionRelevancy Deficiency and ContaminationRelevancy requires that a criterion measure be a valid measure of the performance dimension in question
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