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Chapter 1-5

CHAPTERS 1-5.doc

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Department
Psychology
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Psychology 2075
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William Fisher

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CHAPTER 1- Sexuality in Perspective Simrat the fantabulous Gill Sex & Gender •“any behavior that increases the union of an egg and a sperm” –bio- logical definition of sexual behavior •emphasizes reproductive function of sex •birth control, other contraceptives separated reproduction from sex “sex is a behavior that leads to orgasm”-Alfred Kinsey, sex researcher sexual behavior: behavior that produces arousal and increases chance of or- gasm History of Understanding Sexuality: Religion and Science •Greek’s acknowledged both homos and heteros and trani’s in society, presented in mythology •15 century Christians believed wet dreams resulted from intercourse with tiny spiritual creatures called incubi and succubi •wet dreams, sexual dysfunction and lust were said to be causes of witchcraft •Muslims regarded sex as a primary source of pleasure, secondary source of reproduction Anton Van Leeuwenhoek (1632-1723) •sperm swimming in human semen Oscar Hertwig (1849-1922) •first observedthhe actual fertilization of the egg by the sperm in sea urchins (19 century) •Ovum in humans wasn’t observed until 20 century Dr Clelia Mosher (physician that conducted sex survey in Victorian era) •results provide alternative description of female sexuality during this period, it was said woman felt no sexual desire although 80% did, 72% experienced orgasm Henry Havlock Ellis: •underrated physician who compiled vast amount of info on sexuality- like medical and anthropological findings •Theories published in Studies in the Psychology of Sex, 1896. •Believed women like men are sexual creatures •A sexual reformer, he believed that sexual deviations from the norm are often harmless and urged society to accept them German Magnus Hirschfield: •founded the first sex research institute and administered the first large-scale sex survey •most info destroyed by Nazi’s •established first journal devoted to study of sexuality The Media •in a week, 35% of all programs showed sexual behaviors •communication theorists believe media has 3 types of influence: ocultivation: view that exposure to the mass media makes peo- ple think what they see there represents the mainstream of what really occurs oagenda setting: the idea that the media define what is impor- tant and what is not by which stories they cover osocial learning: the idea that the media provide role models whom we imitate Cross- Cultural Perspectives on Sexuality culture: traditional ideas and values passed down from generation to genera- tion within a group and transmitted to members of the group by symbols (languages) ethnocentrism: tendency to regard ones own ethnic group and culture to be superior than the others •2005: 80% of Canadians compared to 64% Americans approved pre- marital sex and same sex marriage •societies regulate sexual behavior in some way, through exact regula- tions vary greatly from one culture to the next Variations in Sexual Techniques Kissing- among the Kwakiutl of BC and Trobriand Islanders, kissing consisted of sucking the lips and tongue of the partners to permit saliva to flow from one mouth to another Oral: In Ponape, the man places a fish in the woman’s vulva and gradually licks it out prior to intercourse *frequency of intercourse varies on one culture to another, lowest frequency among Irish Sex With Same-Sex Partners Three rules of homosexuality: •no matter how a particular society views homosexuality, the behavior always occurs in at least some individuals •males more likely to engage in same sex activity than females •same sex activity is never the predominant form of sexual behavior for adults in any society Social Class and Sex •Those of a lower class are more likely to engage in a wider variety of sexual activity starting from a younger age •study found that both Asian male and female university students are less experienced that non-Asians •half as many Asian students as non-Asian students had engaged in sexual intercourse The Significance of Cross Cultural Studies •they give us a notion of the enormous variation that exists in human sexual behavior and help put our own standards and behaviors in perspective •these studies provide impressive evidence concerning the importance of culture and learning in the shaping of our sexual behavior: show us that humans sexual behaviors is not completely determined by biology or drives or instincts In What Ways Are Humans Unique •sexual behavior for smaller species such as fish controlled hormonally while through the brain with bigger species such as mammals •environmental experiences are crucial in shaping the sexual behavior •the sexual behavior of a female human is much under hormonal con- trol than that of another female species Sexual Health Perspective •all individuals are sexual beings throughout their lives •individual autonomy and responsibility should guide all aspects of de- cision making •greatest benefits will be achieved by emphasizing promotion of sexual and reproductive health and prevention problems C2:Theoretical Perspectives on Sexuality Simrat the fantabulous Gill Freud: creator of psychoanalytic theory Biological sex drive: libido Evolutionary Perspectives Sociobiology: the application if evolutionary biology to understanding the so- cial behavior of animals including humans Evolution: a theory that all living things have acquired their present forms through gradual changes in their genetic endowment over successive gener- ations •Sociobiologists suggest many of the characteristics we evaluate in judging attractiveness are indicative of the health and vigor of the individual; related to persons reproductive potential •Sociobiologists explain why nuclear families (man, woman, their chil- dren) is found in every society because when two people mate, there are several obstacles to reproductive success, two being in- fant vulnerability and maternal death •Infant vulnerability is reduced if mother provides continuing physical care and father provides physical care and support, i.e. protection Sexual selection: selection that results from differences in traits affecting ac- cess to mates. Consists of two process •Competition among members of one gender for mating access with members of other gender •Preferential choice by members of one gender for certain members of other genders Natural selection: a process in nature resulting in greater rates of survival of those plants and animals that are adapted to their environment *Sociobiologists believe certain function of sex is reproduction, which is naïve Evolutionary Psychology Evolutionary psychology: study of psychological mechanisms that have been shaped by natural selection •One line of research has concentrated on sexual strategies •According to this theory, females and males face different adaptive problems in short term and long term mating and reproduction Psychological Theories Psychoanalytical theory: theory, which contains a basic assumption that part of human personality is unconscious ID: part of the personality that contains the sex drive EGO: part of personality that helps the person have realistic rational interac- tions Superego: part of personality containing the conscience (develops last, morals) Erogenous zones: areas of the body that are particularly sensitive to sexual stimulation Stages of Psychosexual Development (Freud) First stage: oral stage: lasting from birth to one year of age where a child’s chief pleasure is derived from sucking and stimulating its lips Second stage: anal stage: child’s interest focused on elimination Third stage: 3-6year olds: phallic stage: boys and girls focused on genitals(puberty) Oedipus complex: according to Freud, the sexual attraction of a little boy is for his mother Following the resolution of the Oedipus phase, people pass on to the latency phase, lasts until adolescence, and sexually impulses are repressed until pu- berty Learning Theory Classical conditioning: the learning process in which a previously neutral stimulus is repeatedly paired with an unconditioned stimulus that reflexively elicits an unconditioned response. IVAN PAVLOV >Classical conditioning of sexual arousal has been demonstrated in an ex- periment using make students at Queens. PG 34 Operant conditioning: the process of changing the frequency of a behavior by following it with positive reinforcement or punishment Psychoanalytic theorists believe that the determinants of human sexual be- havior occur in early childhood, particularly during the Oedipal complex peri- od Behavior modifications: a set of operant conditioning techniques used to modify human behavior Social learning theory is based on principles of operant conditioning but also recognizes imitation and identification. Self-efficacy: a sense of competence at performing an activity Social Exchange Theory: Social exchange theory: a theory that assumes people will choose actions that maximize rewards and minimize costs •Has emerged out of social learning theory and uses the concept of re- inforcement to explain satisfaction, stability, and change in relation- ships among people. •Assumes we have freedom of choice and often face choices among al- ternative actions; every action provides some rewards and has a cost •States that we are hedonistic; we try to maximize rewards, minimize costs •Views social relationships primarily as exchanges of goods and ser- vices among people •Level of expected outcomes is called the comparison level •People are more likely to stay in a relationship if its high in reward, costs are low and comparison level for alternates are low •Predicts the conditions under which people try to change their rela- tionships; equity or equality •Equity exists when participants in a relationship believe that the re- wards they receive from it are proportional to the costs they bear •Equality exists when both partners experience the same balance of rewards to costs (profit) Cognitive Theory *Cognitive psychologists believe it’s important to study the way people per- ceive and think *To cognitive psychologists, how we perceive and evaluate sexual events makes us all diff. Gender Schema Theory Schema: a general knowledge framework that a person has about a particu- lar topic, it helps us remember but sometimes distorts our memory •Psychologist Sandra Bem proposed gender role development and the impact of gender on peoples daily lives and thinking •Bem states that all of us possess a gender schema; cognitive struc- ture comprised of the set of attributes (personality, appearance) that we associate with makes and females •Our gender schema predisposes us info on the basis of gender Sociological Perspectives Sociologists approach the study of sexuality with three basic assumptions: •Every society regulates the sexuality of its members •Basic institutions of society •The appropriateness or inappropriateness of a sexual behavior de- pends on the culture in which it occurs Social Institutions Religion Economy- economic conditions led to increased number of prostitutes or in- creasing globalization of the economy where people travel around the world such as Thailand for sexual tourism, i.e. sex slaves Medicalization of sexuality: process by which certain sexual behaviors or conditions are defined in terms of health and illness, and problematic experi- ences or practices are given medical treatment The Law •Only the federal gov’t has the right to pass criminal laws, and all sex- ual offences are contained in the Criminal Code of Canada •In 1969 Pierre Elliot Trudeau removed the law that made consensual sexual behaviors between adults done in private illegal, such as use or contraception, oral or anal •Laws are the basis for the mechanisms of social control, may be specified punishments for certain acts and thus encourage people from engaging in them •The law reflects the interests of the powerful, dominant groups in so- ciety •It can be argues that a principle source of sex laws is sexism, which is deeply rooted in western culture, men have historically held more power and made laws Symbolic Interaction Theory •A theory that proposed human nature and the social order are prod- ucts of communication among people •Theory views people as proactive and goal-seeking •Central to social interactions is the process of role-taking, where indi- vidual imagines how he or she looks from another persons view point •This often lets us anticipate what behavior will enable u to reach our goal Sexual Scripts According to Ira Reiss (sociologist) sexuality is linked to the structures of any society in three areas: kinship system, the power structure, and the ideology of society •A cultures ideologies define what’s right or wrong sexually Chapter 3: Sex Research Simrat the fantabulous Gill Goals of sex research: Creating basic understanding and knowledge Enhancing our understanding in order to influence sexual behavior Research can be geared towards public policy - research can inform laws & regulations on a variety of issues, including ac- cess to emergency contraception, new productive technologies, porn, etc. Different types of sex research, but techniques vary in terms of: Whether they reply on peoples self-reports of their sexual behavior or whether scientists observe sexual behavior directly Whether large numbers of people are studied( surveys) or whether a small number or just a single individual is studied(ex. In a lab) Whether the studies are conducted in the lab or in the field Whether sexual behavior is studied simply as it occurs naturally or whether some attempt is made to manipulate it experimentally ISSUES IN SEX RESEARCH -one of the first steps in conducting research is to identify appropriate popu- lation; a group of people researchers want to study sample: a part of a population probability sampling: method of sampling in research in which each member of the population has a known probability of being included in the sample random sampling: excellent method of sampling in research in which each member of the population has an equal chance of being included in the sam- ple stratified random sampling: method of sampling in which the population is divided into groups and then random sampling occurs in each group problem of refusal: the problem that some people will refuse to participate in a sex survey thus making it difficult to have a random sample Volunteer bias: a bias in results of sex surveys that arises when some people refuse to participate so that those who are in the sample are volunteers who may in some ways differ from those who refuse to participate Purposful Distortion Purposely giving false information in a survey May be in two directions: people may exaggerate or minimize their sexual activity or hide the fact that they’ve done certain things Social desirability: tendency to distort answers to a survey in direction per- ceived more acceptable -distortion is a problem using self reports minimize distortion, participants must be impressed with the fact that be- cause the study will be used for scientific purposes their reports must be as accurate as possible three factors that can cause distortion: memory, difficulties with estimates and interpreting the question wrong - another way to asses reliability is to get independent reports fr
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