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Chapter 2

chapter 2.doc

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Department
Psychology
Course Code
Psychology 2075
Professor
William Fisher

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CHAPTER TWO: Theoretical Perspectives on Sexuality Freud: creator of psychoanalytic theory Biological sex drive: libido Evolutionary Perspectives Sociobiology: the application if evolutionary biology to understanding the so- cial behavior of animals including humans Evolution: a theory that all living things have acquired their present forms through gradual changes in their genetic endowment over successive gener- ations · Sociobiologists suggest many of the characteristics we evaluate in judging attractiveness are indicative of the health and vigor of the indi- vidual; related to persons reproductive potential · Sociobiologists explain why nuclear families (man, woman, their chil- dren) is found in every society because when two people mate, there are several obstacles to reproductive success, two being infant vulner- ability and maternal death · Infant vulnerability is reduced if mother provides continuing physical care and father provides physical care and support, i.e. protection Sexual selection: selection that results from differences in traits affecting ac- cess to mates. Consists of two process 1. Competition among members of one gender for mating access with members of other gender 2. Preferential choice by members of one gender for certain members of other genders Natural selection: a process in nature resulting in greater rates of survival of those plants and animals that are adapted to their environment *Sociobiologists believe certain function of sex is reproduction, which is naïve Evolutionary Psychology Evolutionary psychology: study of psychological mechanisms that have been shaped by natural selection · One line of research has concentrated on sexual strategies o According to this theory, females and males face different adap- tive problems in short term and long term mating and reproduc- tion Psychological Theories Psychoanalytical theory: theory, which contains a basic assumption that part of human personality is unconscious ID: part of the personality that contains the sex drive EGO: part of personality that helps the person have realistic rational interac- tions Superego: part of personality containing the conscience (develops last, morals) Erogenous zones: areas of the body that are particularly sensitive to sexual stimulation Stages of Psychosexual Development (Freud) 1. First stage: oral stage: lasting from birth to one year of age where a child’s chief pleasure is derived from sucking and stimulating its lips 2. Second stage: anal stage: child’s interest focused on elimination 3. Third stage: 3-6year olds: phallic stage: boys and girls focused on geni- tals(puberty) Oedipus complex: according to Freud, the sexual attraction of a little boy is for his mother · Following the resolution of the Oedipus phase, people pass on to the la- tency phase, lasts until adolescence, and sexually impulses are re- pressed until puberty Learning Theory Classical conditioning: the learning process in which a previously neutral stimulus is repeatedly paired with an unconditioned stimulus that reflexively elicits an unconditioned response. IVAN PAVLOV >Classical conditioning of sexual arousal has been demonstrated in an ex- periment using make students at Queens. PG 34 Operant conditioning: the process of changing the frequency of a behavior by following it with positive reinforcement or punishment Psychoanalytic theorists believe that the determinants of human sexual be- havior occur in early childhood, particularly during the Oedipal complex peri- od Behavior modifications: a set of operant conditioning techniques used to modify human behavior Social learning theory is based on principles of operant conditioning but also recognizes imitation and identification. Self-efficacy: a sense of competence at performing an activity Social Exchange Theory: Social exchange theory: a theory that assumes people will choose actions that maximize rewards and minimize costs · Has emerged out of social le
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