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Chapter 1

Chapter 1 Notes- Human Sexuality.docx

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Psychology 2075

Chapter 1: Influences on Sexuality Sex and Gender o Sex= sexual anatomy and sexual behaviour o Gender= state of being male or female o Gender roles influence the way expected to behave sexually o Biologist‟s definition of sex= any behaviour that increases the likelihood of gametic union o Emphasizes reproductive function of sex o Alfred Kinsey (sex teacher) defines it= behaviour that leads to orgasm o Sexual Behaviour = behaviour that produces arousal and increases the chance of an orgasm Influences on Sexuality Religion o Source of values and ethics about sex, very influential o Until 100 years ago religion provided most info about sexuality o Few Examples: o Ancient Greeks understood both homo and hetero sexuality wrote about it in myth explaining origins of humans o 15 century Christians believed „wet dreams‟ was sex with a spirit (incubi or succubi) wrote in 1484 in the manuel of the Inquisition (women were tried as witches). Sex dysfunction and lust were witchcraft o Muslims Muhammad tought sex is finest pleasure in life. Primarily for pleasure, secondarily to make babies. o Canadians skewed by religion as well in regards to same sex marriage and abortion. For ex: Conservative Christians (diff from other Christians) believe there interpretation of the bible to support their opposition. Science o Scientific study of sex= nineteenth century o Anton van Leeuwenhoek( 1632-1723) discovered sperm swimming in semen o Oskar Hertwig (1875) 1 observed fertilization of egg and sperm in sea urchins o Sigmund Freud (1856-1939) began work in victortian era (extreme sex suppression) o sex behaviour of Victorians were actually in violation of those suppressive norms: Victorian stereotype for women is that they feel no sex desire but they did. Women would have affairs and not be outcasted o also earlier times fur traders would marry aboriginal women against wants of Europe o Henry Havelock Ellis( 1859-1939) Dr in Victorian England o Published “Studies in the Psychology of Sex” in 1896 o He believed that both men and women equally sexual, sex deviations are harmless, urged society to accept them o He is forerunner of modern sex research o Richard von Krafft-Ebing studied pathological sexuality o Book: Psychopathia Sexualis o Coined sadism, masochism, and pedophilia—hetero/homosexuality first introduced upon translating book o Magnus Hirschfel first sex insitute and did first mass surveys, marriage counseling service, special interest was homosexuality o See figure 1.3 pg 7 The Media o 2005- 35% of programs showed some sexual behaviour o references to safe sex are rare ( only 2%) o media 3 types of influences: o 1. Cultivation= ppl think that what they see on TV is actually what happens in our culture o 2. Agenda Setting= news reporters select what to report on Ex: covering scandalous sex lives of American Presidents lead public to think it is important o 3. Social Learning= characters in movies, novels become models whom we imitate without even knowing it o Internet= newest probably most influential o Many engage in sex activity online o Growing number of people who use internet o Young people are accessing sexual material, sharing pix of themselves o Some sites good, some bad Cross-Cultural Perspectives on Sexuality o Culture= traditional ideas and values transmitted to members of the group through language o Ethnocentrism= regarding one‟s own ethnic group and culture as superior and that its customs should be standards to judge other cultures o Tends to influence people‟s understanding of sexual behaviour o As Canadians we view are patterns as “natural” pattern o Differences between different cultures even Canadian and U.S. o Canadians being more permissive toward sexuality than Americans o All societies regulate sexual behaviour in some way but vary depending on culture o Incest taboos= regulation prohibiting sex between close blood relatives, like brother sister, father/daughter o Universal rule Variations of Sexual Techniques o Kissing is staple in most cultures but not some.. o Thonga of Africa first saw it they said look they eat eachother‟s saliva o Cunnilingus= eating out…fairly common in our society even in cultures in the South Pacific o Island of Ponape- man places fish in womans vulva then licks it out prior to coitus o Inflicting pain on the partner is another sex technique used o Apinaye women of Brazil bite off partner‟s eyebrows o People also bit partners till it scars or draws blood o Frequency of couples having sex varies o Inis Beag culture the least (1/2x month) o Managaians have several times a night o Canadians are somewhere in the middle o Only taboo about timing of sex is postpartum (after woman gives birth) Masturbation o Almost all societies disapprove it (mild-severe punishment) o African Azande Women use phallus made of wood root but if husband catches her he is allowed to beat her o Lesu of South Pacific- accept it, no shame attached to it Premarital and Extramarital Sex o one extreme= eastern Polynesia boys and girls have array of sex experiences before puberty o first time is with person who is 30/40 o mothers are proud if daughter has many lovers o marriage occurs later o Egyptians of Siwa= girl‟s clitoris is removed at age 7 o Premarital sex is shameful o Marriage at 12/13, shortening the pre marital period o 90% South Pacific, 88% Africans, 82% Eurasians permit premarital o 74% Mediterranean cultures prohibit it o Extramarital sex besides incest is 2 most prohibited type of sexual contact o Most comm
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