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Chapter 4

Human Sexuality Chapter 4 Notes.docx

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Western University
Psychology 2075

Human Sexuality Chapter 4: Sexual Anatomy Genital Self-Image o Our attitudes and feelings about our genitals o Feelings may depend on cultural norm (too big/too small) o May affect sexual well-being o Woman who report negative feelings also report low self-esteem during intercourse, less satisfaction, more sexual problems o Cosmetic surgery for genitals is growing trend (vulval=female external genitals not vagina= internal organs) o Vulval surgery= woman feel will make it more beautiful o Vaginoplasty= tightening o Hoodectomy= removing clitoral hood o Labia minora reduction/re-modeling o Pubis tuck= removing excess skin to elevate pubis o Most popular= Toronto Trim reduction of clitoral/labial hood o Men undergo penis enlargement= cosmetic enlargement, not actual o Controversial because people do it because they feel it doesn’t fit cultural norms and because marketing promises better sex without mentioning risks Female Sexual Organs o 2 categories= external organs and internal organs External o Consist of mons pubis (hair), inner lips, outer lips, vaginal opening= vulva The Clitoris o Sensitive organ important for female sexual reponse o Consists of tip (knob of tissue), shaft of 2 corpora cavernosa (spongy bodies, extend inch into the body), 2 crura (longer spongy bodies deep in the body, from tip under lips) o Clitoris homologous to penis—develop form same embryonic tissue o both have corpora cavernosa, they are erectile kuz fill with blood o Rich supply of nerve endings, hence it feels good to be stroked o Unique= no reproductive function, all other sex organs serve function The Mons o ―mountain of venus‖= round fatty pad of tissue covered with pubic hair o on top of pubic bones The Labia o outer lips= labia majora fatty tissue both sides of vaginal opening, covered with hair o inner lips= labia minora 2 hairless folds of skin between outer lips along edge of opening, form the clitoral hood o both are supplied with nerve endings, important in sexual arousal o Bartholin Glands= inside inner lips, function unknown, can become infected o Fourchette= inner lips come together behind opening o Perineum= skin between opening and anus o Introitus= vaginal opening o Urethra= where urine comes out is midline between clit and opening The Vulvar Vestibule o Vestibule= entranceway enclosed by inner lips, contains opening to vagina and urethra o Lots of nerve endings o Vulvar vestibulitis= vestibule gets red and hurts when touched Self-Knowledge o Unlike males where everything is easily seen externally woman’s much less visible o Important to take a mirror either sitting or standing and become aware of own body The Hymen o “Cherry‖/ ―Maidenhead‖= thin membrane partially covers opening o Different types of hymen but usually have holes for menstrual blood o May be broken or stretched during first intercourse may cause bleeding/pain o If woman is worried she can have doctor break it or she can break it by inserting finger o During Middle Ages in Europe Lord might claim right to ―deflower‖ peasant bride before passing her on to her husband (Droit de seigneur- right of the lord) o Evidence of virginity o Paradaing the bloody bed sheets after honeymoon meant that she was a virgin custom of the Kurds of Middle East o But some girls are born without or tear during active sports like horseback riding Internal Organs o Consist of the vagina, vestibular bulbs, Skene’s glands, uterus, ovaries and pair of fallopian tubes The Vagina o Tube-shaped organ where penis is inserted during sex and receives ejaculation o Also known as birth canal o Resting/unaroused state= 8-10cm (3-4 inches) long and tilts slightly backwards o Bottom connects with opening (introitus) at top connects with cervix (lower part of uterus) o During unarousal deflated balloon, when aroused inflated balloon to make room for penis o 3 layers in vagina wall: o inner layer= vaginal mucosa mucous membrane similar to lining of mouth o middle layer= muscular o outer layer= covering o they are elastic, although with age become less flexible and thinner o nerve supply = lower 1/3 near opening o inner 2/3= no nerve endings insensitive except to feelings of deep pressure o G spot= sensitive spot on front vaginal wall not as sensitive as lips/clitoris o Introitus (opening) is what is too tight or too loose o Different in appearance between never had a baby (Nulliparous) and vulva of woman who as (Parous) o Surrounding vagina, urethra and anus= Pelvic Floor Muscles o Pubococcygeal muscle= stretched during childbirth or weak, but can be strengthened through exercises (contracts muscle ten times in a row 6x/day) recommended by sex therapists The Vestibular Bulbs o 2 organs shape of a pea pod o either side of vaginal wall, near entrance under inner lips o erectile tissue near crura The Skene’s Gland/ Female Prostrate o paraurethral gland o between wall of urethra and wall of vagina o ducts empty into urethra o area of erotic sensitivity on vaginal wall o some experience secretion of fluids upon orgasm, some don’t o this is organ dubbed G spot responsible for female ejaculation The Uterus o womb o size and shape of upside down pear rd o narrow lower 3 = cervixopens into vagina o top= fundus main part of the body o major function of uterus= hold and nourish developing fetus o 3 layers o inner layer= endometrium rich supply of glands and blood vessels  state depends on age and phase of menstrual cycle  sloughed off during menstration= blood o middle layer= myometrium muscular  very strong contractions of labour and orgasm  elastic, can stretch o outer layer= perimetrium external cover of uterus The Fallopian Tubes o Extending sides of upper uterus o Also called oviducts o Extremely narrow have cilia (hair like projections) o Pathway for egg travels towards uterus and sperm reaches egg o Tubes tied= cutting of fallopian tubes o Fertilization happens in infundibulum section closest to ovary, fertilized egg then travels tube to uterus o Ends of infundibulum= fimbriae finger like projections The Ovaries o 2 organs size and shape of unshelled almonds on either side of uterus o Functions= 1) to produce eggs (ova) 2) make sex hormones estrogen and progesterone o Contains many follicles capsules that surrounds egg o Females born with a million immature eggs o Starting at puberty several follicles mature during each menstrual cycle, once egg is matured follicle releases it and bursts open o No direct connection to fallopian tubes egg is released into body cavity eaches tube by moving toward fimbriae o if doesn’t reach tube= abdominal pregnancy can happen The Breasts o not sex organs o have 15-20 clustuers of mammary glands each with opening to nipple and fatty/fibrous tissue that surround glands o nipple= rich with nerve endings, milk ducts open into it, smooth muscle fibres that contract when erect o Areola= darker areas surrounding nipple o Many women not satisfied with size of boobs, same number of nerve endings in all sizes but small breasts are actually more erotically sensitive per sq cm then bigger ones o Breasts take on psychological meaning: symbol of femininity or means of attracting men o Very breast oriented culture: lots of breast enlargement/ breast reduction has increased o Usually breast reduction for medical reasons—reduce back pain Male Sexual Organs o Externally= scrotum, penis External Organs o Penis (phallus, prick, cock, Johnson) = important in sexual pleasure, reproduction, elminiation of body wastes by urination o Tubular organ with tip = glans o Meatus/ Urethral Opening= opening at end of glans urine and semen pass o Shaft= main part o Crown= raised ridge or crown—coronal ridge o Entire penis is sensitive to stimulation/ Corona and rest of glans most sexually excitable regions o Internally 3 long cylinders of spongy tissue running parallel to urethra o Corpora Cavernosa= 2 spongy bodies on top o Corpus Spongiosum= 1 spongy body on bottom of penis, urethra runs through middle o Part that erects o Those spongy bodies supplied with blood vessels and nerves o When flaccid contain little blood o Erection (tumescence)= when fills with blood o Foreskin (Prepuce)= layer of skin covering the glans, under which have small glands that make smegma cheesy in texture o Retraction important for hygiene, if not pulled back and washed properly smegma may accumulate = bad odour o Circumcision= surgical cutting of foreskin o 30% of males over 15 are o most men in Middle East, Central Asia, Muslim Asian and some African countries o rates are low in central/south America, Europe, many parts of Asia o may be done for cultural/religious reasons (Jewish) o Jews do it 8 days after birth- symbolizing covenant between god and jews o Common in Muslim cultures-sometimes at puberty as a right of passage, ability to stand pain=proof of manhood o 1980’s anti-circumcision movement began in North America—doesn’t have any health benefits, does entail some health risks as well as psychological trauma= cruel mutilation  pediatric society confirmed this  not covered either  on the decline: 32% of infant boys are o new evidence suggests some benefits and risks  uncircumcised more likely to get urinary tract infection (although risk is already low)  higher risk of HIV AIDS infection—based on rates in Africa  also higher risk of HPV that give woman cervical cancer o other forms of genital cutting in more cultures than female cutti
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