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Chapter 13

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Psychology 2075

Human Sexuality chapter 13 Gender and Sexuality  Gender is usually figured out early in life, people usually can identify there own gender by the time they are 2 and a half  People can get flustered when they can not determine the persons gender, and are often very curios  In Canada there are two genders: male and female but in some places there are many and they can get up to 4  There are clear stereotypes when it comes to gender, but are they true? Gender roles and stereotypes  Gender role: a set of norms or culturally defined expectations, that define hoe people of one gender ought to behave  Stereotype: a rigid set of beliefs about a group of people that distinguishes them from others and is applied to all members of that group  By the age of 6 people can identify stereotypes (place females in the weak roles, men playing sports, etc.) Gender schema theory  Is a set of ideas that we associate with males and females  It leads people to distort information that goes against gender schemas (remember a boxer as a boy even though shown was a girl)  Our gender schemas and the situation we are in both influence how we process information The traditional gender script  Are cognitive frameworks for how people are expected to behave in social situations  The sexual script that is most pervasive in north America is termed the traditional sexual script (how men and women are supposed to behave in a sexual situation)  Aspects are listed on page 369  How much evidence is there that heterosexuals follow the TSS o Men more often than not initiate sex more o Women on average instigate about once a week o Men and women use the same strategies to change there partners mind o And in this study 74-83 percent of the time people were willing ot engage in sexual activity  There for this meant hat some of the TSS do not follow what it is believed to be (like women initiating sex) Socialization  Socialization: refers to the ways in which society conveys to the individual its norms or expectations fro his or her behaviour  This occurs especially in children: the can be rewarded (what a brave little man he is, or punished that’s not what young ladies do) – these are ‘appropriate to there gender’  Children also engage in elf socialization- the more that they identify with one gender, the more they are motivated to incorporate attributes associated with that gender into their self concept  This continues into adulthood where men and women do certain things that fit there social norms  Parent usually treat boys and girls that same for the most part, except they highly influence gender roles, like buying there daughters dolls and there sons baseball bats and footballs  Peer groups can also have a big role in influencing gender roles o A study done in Ontario with grade 3-6 students showed that girl preferred to play with the girls that did exclusively feminine things, while the boys preferred to play with the boys that did exclusively masculine things  Media also has a big influence- this is shown in children’s books as most of the adults are in stereotypical gender occupations  Gender stereotyping is also shown in video games along with books and television Gender roles and ethnicity  Ethnicity refers to a sizable group of people who share a common and distinct racial, national, religious, linguistic, or cultural origin or heritage  1/5 Canadians was not born in Canada- and about 36-46% of people living in major Canadian cities was not born in Canada  Acculturation: the process of incorporating the beliefs and customs of a new culture  There are many double standards when it comes to gender roles- people that immigrated from other places sometime make women go out and get professional degrees because back home they could not, BUT there are also cases where the women can not engage in unsupervised dating (boys are allowed to do this, often it is encouraged)  The south Asian communities o Is the second largest minority group in Canada o Religion, and education are important, they closely follow there values from back home (sometimes arranged marriages) o Boys are encouraged to date and have sexual experiences, girls may not be able to date because female virginity is highly valued before marriage o Women are not suppose to complain if the man has extramarital sex, most men visit sex workers before and during marriage  The Chinese community o The largest minority group in Canada o Individualism is not encouraged- it is about the family o Women are suppose to take submissive roles, and men are though of as the head of the household. Women often experience conflict when the want to get an education (does not follow the traditional gender role) o Men and women are both encourage to not have premarital sex, but it is okay for men to engage in extramarital sex  English-speaking Caribbean communities o A strong sense of family is important, men are often seen as head of the household, and women care for the children o It is not uncommon for men to have many sexual partners, or multiple partners  Aboriginal communities o Relatively egalitarian gender roles, and the process of adaptation has lead to increased male dominance in North American peoples o Berdache- refers to a third gender role (often transgender, homosexuals) and can also be referred to as two spirit o Women can express masculine traits, but still be considered a women and continue to live and dress like a women Gender differences in psychological functioning  Aggressiveness: men tend to be more aggressive, no matter the age, and women tend to be more emotionally expressive (study in new Brunswick shows that men are becoming more expressive) Communication styles: women are better at decoding no verbal cue (body- language) Gender differences in sexuality Masturbation  Men more often that not masturbate more frequently than women and begin at an earlier age Attitudes toward casual sex  Men are more willing to engage in casual sex, women feel it is a place for a committed relationship  Women are more likely to say reasons for having sex is to express love to there partner, but the top reasons are pretty much the same for men and women (desirability, availability etc. ) Use of pornography  Men are more likely to watch porn Arousal to Erotica  Julia Heinman did a study to see if men or women are more turned on by erotic stimuli o She used a penile strain gauge-a device used to measure physiological sexual arousal in the male; it is a flexible loop that fits around the base of the penis and she used a photoplethysmograph: an acrylic cylinder that is placed inside the vagina to measure physiological sexual arousal in the female o There were shown different videos, and there arousal was measured,
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