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Chapter 14

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Psychology 2075

Human Sexuality Chapter 14 Sexual Orientation and identity: Gay, lesbian, Bi, Straight, or Asexual?  Sexual Identity: one self-identity as gay, heterosexual, or a sexual  Sexual orientation: a person erotic and emotional orientation toward members of his or her own gender or members of the other gender  Homosexual: a person whose sexual orientation is toward members of the same gender. Use of the terms gay or lesbian to refer individuals is preferable  Heterosexual: a persons whose sexual orientation is toward members of the other gender  Bisexual: a persons whose sexual orientation is toward both men and women  Asexual: a person who is not attracted to men or women  Lesbian: a women whose sexual orientation is toward other women  A persons attraction may not match its behaviour  The term homosexual is problematic for three main reasons o 1. In the past it has been used as a derogatory term o 2. It emphasized sexual behaviour rather than sexual identity o 3. It is ambiguous because even though it is a general term it often has be used to refer to exclusively gay men  Straight: heterosexual  Pansexual individuals are open to relationships with people of any sex, gender or gender identity o Not everyone uses these terms because in the past they have been used as derogatory How many people are Gay, Lesbian, Bi, Straight or Asexual?  In 2003 and 2005 CCHS survey adults 18-59 and asked them if they considered themselves heterosexual, homosexual or bi sexual o 1.4 percent of people considered themselves homosexual o 0.7 percent of people considered themselves bisexual  Women are more likely to describe there changes in there sexual orientation  The NFSG  about 2 percent of men and 1 percent of women exclusively  According to the large British study; 1 percent of people think of themselves as a sexual o These people have less sexual desire but not necessarily no desire for sex  In a study including children, only about 3 percent of people believed themselves to be homosexual  Its hard to split people into the categories like heterosexual and homosexual groups because they are completely different  Kinsey put together a scale running from 0 (exclusively heterosexual experience) to 6 (exclusively homosexual experience) o Problem because the scale only refers to behaviour and no attraction o Others also say that this is to simple  You could also build a two layer schema which is better for people who are a sexual Attitudes  The majority of people are exclusively heterosexual, therefore there are negative stereotypes against gays and lesbians  resulting in discrimination Attitudes toward gay men and lesbians  The attitudes of homosexuals in Canada are increasingly becoming positive  Canadians are more open to same sex marriage than Americans are  Homophobia: a strong, irrational fear of gay men and lesbians; negative attitudes and reactions to gay men and lesbians  Some scholars prefer to use the term homonegativty: negative attitudes and behaviours toward gay men and lesbians; sometimes called anti-gay prejudice or sexual prejudice  Heterosexism: the belief that everyone is heterosexual and heterosexuality Is the only legitimate, acceptable and healthy way for people to be; homosexuality is denigrated o This can have a serous negative affect on people, especially when they are young and trying to figure out there sexual identity  Canadians over the age of 15 who identify themselves as gay or lesbian are 2.5 percent as likely to be victims of violent crime than heterosexuals  Media plays a big role; some find that they make gay or lesbians laughable, or present them in unstable relationships, while others use humour which is seen as helpful Attitudes toward bisexuals  They are often thought of as internally conflicted  Research has found that few bisexuals actually have both sex partners at one time  Bisexuality is some times seen as fence sitting, theta they haven’t really decided who they are and what they prefer Gay men, Lesbians, and bisexuals as a minority group  The criminal code says that people that want to engage in anal intercourse must be at least 18 and must be done in private, this discriminated against gay men as they can not experiment there are no similar rules for vaginal intercourse  Prior to 1992 homosexuality was grounds for dishonorable discharge from the military  In 2003 British Columbia and Ontario were the first courts to legalize same sex marriage  In 2005 all of Canada passed the bill that marriage is the union of two people no matter there sexual orientation o Canada was the fourth country in the world  It is easy for a person to hide there sexual identity because it is not a physical attribute and cannot be seen  It is frowned upon to pretend that you are heterosexual when you are not  causes immense stress that leads to a higher change of disease Life experiences of LGB individuals  Covert homosexuality: a gay man or women who is in the closet who keeps his or her sexual orientation a secret  Overt homosexuality: a gay man or women who is out of the closet who is open about his or her sexual orientation Coming out  Coming out: the process of acknowledging to one self and then to others that one is gay or lesbian o After coming out there is a stage of exploration and integration  The stage approach o 1. Identity confusion o 2. Identity comparison o 3. Identity tolerance o 4. Identity acceptance o 5. Identity pride o 6. Identity synthesis  Criticisms of the stage approach are that not every one goes through each stage and that people do not always go through it in this order  Bisexual identity o Bisexual women tend to have there first sexual experience with an opposite sex partner while men are more likely to have a same sex interaction first Lesbians, Gays and Bisexual Communities  The upside down pink triangle has been reclaimed by the gay community as a positive symbol, the Greek letter lambda is also used  The most recognizable symbol is the rainbow flag  Gay Bars: a gay friendly ba
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