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Chapter 2

Human sexuality ch.2

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Psychology 2075

Chapter 2 9/27/2012 9:33:00 AM Evolutionary perspectives  Use principals from evolutionary biology to explain why certain patterns of social behaviour to explain why certain patterns of social behaviour and psychological mechanisms have evolved in animals, including humans  Sociobiology: the idea that some behaviours are a result of evolution  Natural selection: the process by which individuals who are best adapted to their environment are more likely to survive, reproduce, and pass on their genes to the next generation  A major attribute that people look for while picking a mate is physical attractiveness (physic and complexion) o People that are more attractive are healthy, therefore they can reproduce many healthy offspring  Pair-bond: is between the mother and the father  Attachment: between the parent and the infant o An offspring’s chances of survival are greatly increased if the parents bond emotionally and if the parents have a propensity for attachment  Parental investment: refers to the behaviour and resources invested in offspring to achieve this end  Men spend more money on their genetic children than their step children form a previous marriage, but they spend the same amount of money on their genetic children as children in their current relationship o Perhaps to cement a pair bond with the partner  Women react ta range of sexual stimuli, because if they were to have intercourse with out vaginal lubrication, it could lead to infection and death- natural selection favors that women respond to more diverse sexual stimuli (even people that they really aren’t attracted to)  Sexual selection: selection that results from differences in traits affecting access to mates o Consists of two processes:  1. Competition among members of one gender (usually males) for mating access to members of the one gender  2. Preferential choice members of one gender (usually females) for certain members of the other gender  men should show off things that will attract women, like there material possessions, and personality traits like ambition  the waist to hip ratio has steadily decreased over time Evolutionary Psychology  Evolutionary psychology: the study of psychological mechanisms that have been shaped by natural selection  If a man had a good judge if a women was fertile, he will be more successful in reproducing  Sexual strategies: females and males face different adaptive problems in short term, or casual mating and in long term mating and reproduction  Men generally relax their standards when it comes to looking for a short term mate, women’s standards don’t differ that much Psychological theories  Four major theories are relevant to sexuality: 1. Psychoanalytic theories  a psychological theory originated by Sigmund Freud; it contains basic assumptions that part of human personality is unconscious  termed the sex drive the libido  ID, EGO, AND SUPEREGO o Id: operates on the pleasure ego, is there at birth can be irrational -> contains the libido o Ego: operates on the reality principal, makes a person have realistic, rational interactions with others o Superego: is the conscience, contains the values and ideals of society that we learn and operates on idealism  Erogenous zones: areas of the body that are particularly sensitive to sexual stimulation  STAGES OF PSYCHOSEXUAL DEVELOPMENT: o Oral stage: pleasure derived from the stimulation of the mouth and lips o Anal stage: focused on elimination o Phallic stage: focused on their genital stage  Development of the Oedipus complex: the sexual attraction of a little boy for his mother  Boy feels castration anxiety because he fears that his father will cut off his penis  Female Oedipus complex: the sexual attractio
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