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Chapter 9

Human Sexuality ch.9.docx

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Department
Psychology
Course
Psychology 2075
Professor
Prof
Semester
Winter

Description
Chapter 9 Sexual Response The Sexual Response Cycle  Sexual response typically progresses in three stages, excitement, orgasm, and resolution  Vasocongestion: an accumulation of blood in the blood vessels of a region of the body, especially the genitals, a swelling or erection results  Myotonia: muscle contraction Excitement  Excitement: the first stage of sexual response, during which erection in the male and vaginal lubrication in the female occur  Erection happens when the corpus cavernosa and the corpus sponginosum fill with blood  A man may have an erection only seconds after stimulation o Can be slower due to age, alcohol and fatigue o Before orgasm the penis may secrete seminal fluid which is not ejaculate, but may have few active sperm (secreted form the Cowper’s gland)  Erection occurs when the main arteries that supply the penis with blood fill, and the veins constrict restricting outgoing blood flow  Erections do not last forever, so the opposite process happens when the erection disappears, also the transmitters norepinephrine and epinephrine are involved  An important response for women is lubrication  This is also caused by vasocongestion, there is increased blood flow to the walls of the vagina, and the lubrication is from the semipermeable membranes f the vagina  As the women becomes more aroused the orgasmic platform forms: o A tightening of the entrance of the vagina caused by contractions of the bulbospongiosus muscle (which covers the vestibular bulbs) that occur late in the arousal stage of sexual response  During the excitement phase the glans of the clitoris (the tip) swells o Its similar to the erection in a male  The vestibular bulbs also swell during excitement  Late in the excitement phase the clitoris may rise (it essentially retracts or draws up into the body)  Similar in men, blood fills the region due to the relaxation of the smooth muscle  Nitric Oxide is a key neurotransmitter involved in the process  In an un aroused state the inner lips are generally folded over covering the entrance to the vagina and the outer lips lie close to each other  During excitement the inner lips swell and open up  Also during excitement the nipples swell due to the contraction of the muscle fibers  The breasts also swell due to vasocongestion  When a woman is in an un-aroused state, the vagina walls lie against each other like a deflated balloon. When the women goes into an aroused state the vagina inflates like an inflated balloon  In both men and women there are different sexual responses like the sex flush, or thickening of the scrotal wall Orgasm  Orgasm: the second stage of sexual response; an intense sensation tat occurs at the peak of sexual arousal and is followed by release of sexual tensions  In men orgasms are a series of contractions of the pelvic organs at 0.8 second intervals  In the preliminary stage, the vas, seminal vesicles and prostate contract forcing the ejaculate into a bulb at the end of the urethra (‘cumming’- sensation before ejaculation and it can not be stopped  In the second stage the urethral bulb, muscles at the base of the penis, and the urethra contract rhythmically forcing the semen through the urethra and out the opening at the tip of the penis  There may be a difference in ejaculation and the sensation of an orgasm- studies have shown that the sensation of orgasm can also be affected by psychological and social factors  After studying the results of questionnaires asking men and women what an orgasm feels like, they suggest that the sensation are quite similar for men and women  It I s hard to tell whether or not women actually have an orgasm, there is not tell tale sign (like ejaculate), the best thing is to have good honest communication in a relationship  If a women fakes an orgasm, then the man might feel like what he is doing is right and can cause some problems within a relationship Resolution  Resolution: the third stage of the sexual response, in which the body returns to the un-aroused state  In the women the clitoris returns to its normal position, and it takes longer to reduce in size  About 10-15 seconds after the breasts reduce in size  The orgasmic platform relaxes and begins to shrink  The resolution phase takes about 15-30 minutes, and may take longer if the woman doesn’t have an orgasm  In a man resolution is more obvious as the blood flows out of the penis and he loses his erection  After the resolution phase the men enter a refractory period: o The period following orgasm where the man cannot be sexually aroused  The refractory period varies from man to man and tends to be longer as the man gets older  Oxytocin is secreted during sexual arousal, and a surges of prolactin occurs at orgasm in both women in men  Women can have multiple orgasms, where a women has multiple orgasms in a short amount of time o This is because women take a longer for vasocongestion to occur and there fore is she is aroused she can immediately have another orgasm More On Women’s Orgasms  Clitoral Orgasms: o Freud’s term for orgasm in the female resulting from stimulation of the clitoris  Vaginal Orgasm: o Freud’s term for orgasm in the female resulting from stimulation of the vagina in heterosexual intercourse; Freud considered vaginal orgasm to be more mature than clitoral orgasm  Freud believe that as women mature there erogenous zone shift from the clitoris to the vagina  A clitoral orgasm is seen as an immature orgasm, and a vaginal as seen as a mature  Women, who could not achieve orgasm through vaginal stimulation, were called vaginally frigid.  Masters and Johnson said that both of the orgasms are the same because there is n physiological difference and the fact that eve vaginal stimulation result is a large amount of clitoral stimulation  Some men are capable of having multiple orgasms- some said that this did not happen every time and other said that it developed later in life. Men also reported that some of there orgasms did not follow with ejaculation Other Models  Some are critics of masters and Johnson work because they relied to much of the physiological aspects and did not include what the people were feeling and thinking  Another criticisms includes how research participants were selected and how this may have been a self fulfilling prophecy for the outcome o All of there research Participants had to have a high sexual desire and have both had an orgasm from intercourse and masturbation Kaplan’s triphasic Model  There are three components: sexual desire, vasocongestion and muscular contractions  There are a number of justifications: the two physiological components involved different parts f the nervous system (vasocongestion- producing the erection in the male and the lubrication in the female: is controlled by the parasympathetic and the orgasm is the sympathetic  Secondly they involve different anatomical structures, blood vessels for vasocongestion and muscles for contractions of orgasm  Third they differ in there susceptibility to being disturbed by injury, drugs, or age o Example: the ability to have an orgasm decreases with age  Fourth, the reflex of ejaculation in the male can be brought under voluntary control by most men but the erection reflex generally cannot  Finally, the impairment of the vasocongestion response or the orgasm response produce different disturbances The Intimacy Model  Basson believed that sexual arousal does not come before sexual intimacy, that couples begin in a neutral state, ad then become sexual aroused once sexual activity has begun  Basson’s intimacy model: o Emotional Intimacy sexual Neutrality sexual stimuli sexual arousal sexual desire and arousal emotional and physical satisfaction The dual Control Model  A model that holds that sexual response is controlled both by sexual excitation and by sexual inhibition they observe that the inhibition of sexual response is adaptive across species  People who are very high on the excitation component and low on the inhibition process may engage in high risk behaviours  People who are very high on inhibition and low on excitation may be more likely to develop sexual disorders such as erectile dysfunction or low sexual desire  Early learning and culture are critical factors for both men and women  Media plays a huge role stereotypical women are thin with big boobs  According to the dual control model, inhibition can be used in times when sexual response is dangerousex. In book with the king and queen  Also multiple ejaculations is a day reduces fertility Emotion and arousal  Researchers recruited 81 mixed-sex couples and 106 same sex couples  A daily diary method was used where they would log onto a website at the same time every day for 14 days  The questions on the questionnaires were about both emotion and sexual behaviour, the couples were asked to fill them out independently  Results showed that when couples were happier they had more sexual thoughts  Also, when people had more negative thoughts, there was an increase in sexual behaviour o Researchers believed that emotions like anger and anxiety involved generalized arousal which n turn intensifies arousal Hormonal and Neural bases of sexual behaviour The Brain, the spinal cord, and sex  Spinal Reflex o Has three basic components: the receptors (which are sensory neurons that detect stimuli and transmit the message to the spinal cord) the transmitters (which are centers in the spinal cord that receive the message, interpret it, and send out a message t produce the appropriate response, the effectors (neurons or muscles that respond to the stimulation  Mechanism of an erection o Stroking or rubbing of the penis or nearby areas sends a message to the sacral region
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