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Chapter 10

Human Sexuality Chapter 10

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Psychology 2075
William Fisher

Human Sexuality- Chapter 10 Infancy (0-2 Years)  Before 1890- thought that sexuality was something that appeared at puberty  Infants have sexual urges and engage in sexual activity (found by Freud)  Male Infants o Get erections o Reflex erections occur in the male fetus for several months before birth  Female Infants o Vaginal lubrication has been in found 24h after birth  First intimate relationship is with mother o Involve a good deal of physical contact o Engages infants tactile, olfactory, visual and auditory senses o Involve contact with sensitive organs o Can produce physiological response of sensuous and sexual nature  The highly physiological and emotionally charged first encounters of a parent and infant play an indispensible part in the development process Self-Stimulation  Infants often are observed fondling their own genitals o Question as to how conscious they are about it o Engaging in some pleasurable, sexual self-stimulation  Orgasms are possible at this age o Before puberty ejaculation cannot occur in boys Infant-Infant Sexual Encounters  very self centered  affectionate or sexual o kiss, hug, pat, stroke, gaze at each other Non Genital Sensual Experience  Infants enjoy putting things in their mouths and being cuddled o May be sensuous Attachment: a psychological bond that forms between an infant and the mother, father, or other caregiver  Bond begins in the hours immediately following birth  Earliest experiences with love and emotional attachment o Affects the persons capacity for emotional attachment in adulthood Knowing About Boy-Girl Differences  By age 2 ½ -3 children know what gender they are o First step in developing gender identity Early Childhood (3-7 Years)  Increase in sexual interest and activity Masturbation  Children learn during this period that masturbation is something done in private Mixed-Sex Behaviour  Boys and girls may hug each other and hold hands  Playing doctor is popular o Exhibiting ones own genitals, looking at those of others o Engaging in fondling or touching  Age 5  formed concept of marriage  Some children first learn about sexual behaviour by seeing or hearing their parents o Experience is not damaging Same Sex Behaviour  Sexual play with ones own gender may be more common Sex Knowledge and Interests  3 or 4 o children begin to understand that there are some genital differences o interested in different postures for urinating  girls attempt to pee standing up  Age 7 – understand what the differences are Preadolescence (8 to 12 Years) Freud used the term Latency to refer to the preadolescent period following the resolution of the Oedipus Complex.  Believed that sexual urges go underground during latency and are not expressed  Freud was wrong The first experience of sexual attraction may lead the child to consider his or her sexual orientation Masturbation  More children gain experience with masturbation o Boys – told about it by their male peers o Girls – learn about it through accidental self discovery Mixed-Sex Behaviour  Little sexual behaviour with the other gender during this period o Mainly because of the social division  Commonly hear about intercourse for the first time  80% reported to having a consensual experience with another child when they were 6-12 years old o Common activities were talking about sex, kissing and hugging, looking at porn Same Sex Behaviour Gender Segregated: A general form of social grouping in which males play and associate with other males and females play and associate with other females  Genders are separate from each other Children are socializing with other members of their own gender  Sexual exploring  partners of same gender  Masturbation, exhibitionism and fondling of other genitals o Boys may engage in “circle jerk” o Girls don’t engage in such activities Age 12-13: the first sexual activity with another person Dating and Romantic Relationships Pre and early adolescence is a period of transition in the nature of social relationships  First romantic or sexual behaviours Dating:  Spending time or going out with a boy or girl whom the youth liked, loved or had a crush on  Emerged in grade 7 Sexualization of Children Sexualization occurs when  A person’s value comes only from his or her sexual appeal or behaviour  A person is held to a standard that equates physical attractiveness with being sexy  A person is sexually objectified  Sexuality is inappropriately imposed upon a person American Psychological Association Task Force  Sexualization of girls involves cultural contributions o Including sexualized representations of girls and women in media o Sexualized products: barbies etc  Interpersonal contributions o When girls are treated like sexual objects by friends, family etc  Sexualization may lead to reduced self esteem Adolescence (13-19 Years) A surge of sexual interest occurs around puberty and continues through adolescence. This heightened sexuality may be caused by a number of different factors  Bodily changes  Awareness of the changes  Rises in levels of sex hormones  Increased cultural emphasis on sex  Rehearsal for adult gender roles Udry(1988) proposed a theoretical model that reconizes that both sociological factors and biological factors are potent in adolescent sexuality.  Studied Grade 8,9 + 10 measuring their hormone levels (testosterone, estrogen and progesterone)  also looked at a number of sociological fact
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