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Chapter 4

Sex Psych 2075 chapter 4 notes.doc

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Department
Psychology
Course
Psychology 2075
Professor
William Fisher
Semester
Fall

Description
Chapter4 Sexual Anatomy Genital self-image- our attitudes, and feelings about our genitals -average persons self-image is positive but still some have a negative look as well. -people’s feeling may be affected by how they perceive their genitals (too big, or too small) , sexual experience (ex child abuse) and medical conditions (genital surgery). - studies have shown that man who watch porn get negative feelings because they see bigger dicks and think theirs is to small. this can affect man and women well-being. Female Sexual Organs - females can be separated into 2 categories 1. internal organs 2. external organs 2. External Organs - consists of the clitoris, the mons pubis, the inner lips, the outer lips, and the vaginal opening. These words all stem to VAGINA in text VULVA= crotch, cunt, pussy and vagina...same shit CLITORIS - is a organ which is very sensitive, and is important for sexual response. Only part of the sexual anatomy with no known reproductive function. - female and male sexual organs develop similar tissue before birth; meaning organs of one gender being homologous (meaning coming from the same source) ex of this in males and females is the penis and clitoris are homologous because they are developed from same embryonic tissue. The mons - rounded fatty pad of tissue covered with pubic hair (atwal should know) - lie onto of the pubic bones The Labia -OUTER LIPS (major lips)= fatty tissue lying along both sides of the vaginal opening; covered with pubic hair -INNER LIPS (minor lips)= hairless skin lying between the outer lips running right along the vaginal opening -these 2 lips are supplied with many nerve endings and play a huge role in sexual arousal and sexual stimulation -BARTHOLIN GLANDS- pair of small glands which lie inside the inner lip, function is unknown but doctors are interested in these smalls glands because they are sometimes infected. -Fourchette= the place where the inner lips come together behind the vaginal opening - Perineum= area of skin between the vaginal opening and the anus - Introitus- this is sometimes another term for the vaginal opening - women piss passes through the URETHRA not vagina or the vaginal opening The Vulvar Vestibule Vestibule= the area enclosed by the inner lips. it contains the opening to the vagina and urethra. very sensitive cause has a lot of nerve endings so therefore very pleasurable -Vulvar Vestibulitis- women can develop this, means the vestibule becomes very sensitive and red, any touch in the area of the vaginal opening results in severe pain. ex. this can occur during sex, vaginal rubbing, and evening biking,exercise, tight clothes, and tampons. Self Knowledge - one important major different between males and females sexual organs is that a females external genitals are much less visible of that of a males. - guys can just look down and bang, external genitals, whereas females can only see the mons. - clitoris, inner and outer lips remain hidden The Hymen (cherry) - this is a membrane, if present, partially covers the vaginal opening - has different types (annular, septate, cribiform, and imperforate hyman) - it does have some openings in it; otherwise menstrual flow would not be able to pass out. - the hymen is usually broken when broad loses her virginity as the cock goes right into vagina. this causes pain for the girl Internal Organs - consist of the vagina, vestibular bulbs, the Skene’s glands, the uterus, a pair of ovaries, and a pair of fallopian tubes The Vagina - this is a tube-shaped organ in which the penis is inserted during coitus (sex); also receives the ejaculate - sometimes called the BIRTH CANAL because it is also the passage way for a baby - when unaroused the vagina is about 8-10cm (3-4inches) long - works like a balloon, before arousal the walls lie together but during arousal the walls inflate like a balloon allowing penis to penetrate in. - walls of vagina have 3 layers 1. inner layer- vaginal mucosa=mucous membrane 2. middle layer= muscular 3. outer layer= forms a covering -these layers are extremely elastic and capable of expanding, for birth and sex, but do become less capable as women age -nerve supply is more to the top of the vagina near the clitoris, the inner two thirds have pretty much no nerve endings -some women have a spot on the front wall of the vagina, that is more sensitive than the rest of the entire vagina= G SPOT - the INTROITUS- - Pelvic Floor Muscles= muscles surrounding the vagina, the urethra, and the anus (PUBOCOCCYGUES MUSCLE) The Vestibular Bulbs - two organs the size of a pea pod - lie on both sides of the vaginal wall - they are erectile tissue and lie close to the crura of the clitoris The Skene’s Gland, or Female Prostate - it secretes fluid very similarly to how male prostate is done - women find it a very special erotic sensitivity on the wall of the vagina - size and amount of prostate varies from women to women (some women don’t even secrete whereas other women can blow like guys) - organ called the G-SPOT The Uterus - looks like a pear, and we look at it as upper and lower thirds - lower third is called the cervix; opens the vagina (this entrance is very narrow) - this entrance is the called OS (or Cervical Canal) - upper third is called the fundus; the main part of the body - major function of the uterus is to hold and nourish developing fetus a.k.a baby - uterus consists of three layers - 1. inner layer (endometrium) = supplied with glands and blood vessels. varies on the women and at the time of their menstrual cycle. Endometrium is sloughed off during menstruation and cause the discharge - 2. Middle layer (Myometrium) = very muscular allowing for powerful contractions of labour and orgasm. very high elasticity (allowing a 9 month old fetus to come out) - 3. Outer layer (Perimetrium) = forms external cover of the uterus The Fallopian Tubes - extends out from upper end of the uterus - very narrow (0.2 to 0.5mm) and are lined with cilia - it serves as the passage way in which the egg travels through the uterus so the egg and sperm can meet - fertilization of the egg typically occurs in the infundibulum, section of the tube closest to the ovary; then the fertilized egg travels through the tube to the uterus - the infundibulum curves around toward the ovary; at its end are numerous fingerlike projections called fimbriae, which extend toward the ovary The Ovaries - two organs, size and shaped like unshelled almonds - functions are to produce eggs (ova) and manufacture sex hormones (estrogen and progesterone) - each ovary contains numerous follicles; follicle is a capsule that surrounds an egg - a female is born with an estimate of around 1 million immature eggs - beginning at puberty, one or several follicles mature during each menstrual cycle; when the egg matures, the follicle burst open and releases the egg - ovaries don’t directly connect to the fallopian tube, the egg is actually released into body cavity and reaches the tube by moving toward the fimbriae; if the egg doesn’t reach the tube, it may be fertilized outside the tube, resulting in abdominal pregnancy (seasection) The Breasts - not a real sex organ, but do have erotic and reproductive significance - the breast contain about 15-20 mammary glands, each with a separate opening to the nipple, and of fatty and fibrous tissue that surrounds the cluster of glands. - milk ducts out at the tip of the nipple; this region is highly surrounded with nerve endings giving it its erotic stimulation for women - made up of smooth muscle, when they contract the nipple then becomes hard - the darker area surrounding the nipple is called the areloa - FACT: same number of nerve endings in small breasts and big breasts, true fact is small breasts are more erotic - breasts can take on a huge psychological meaning; draws interest in men, socially as well between females etc.. Male Sexual Organs - externally the most visible part of male organs is the penis and the scrotum, or the scrotal sac, which contains the testes External Organs The Penis - serves in sexual pleasure, reproduction, and the elimination of body wastes through urination - tubular organ with and end or tip called the glans - the opening of the glans is the meatus, or urethral opening, through which urine and semen pass - main part of the penis is called the SHAFT (something mina doesn’t possess aka small horn) - the raised ridge at the edge of the glans is called the corona, or coronal ridge - so the entire penis is very sensitive BUT the corona and rest of glans are the most sexually excitable regions of male anatomy - internally, the penis contains 3 long cylinders of spongy tissue running parallel to the urethra; which is the pathway through which semem and urine pass - 2 spongy bodies lying on top are called the corpora cavernosa - 1 single spongy tissue lying on the bottom of the penis is called the corpus spongiosum; during erection can be seen as a raised column on the lower side of the penis - these bodies are tissue filled with many spaces and cavities (like a sponge); they are richly supplied with blood vessels and nerves - in the flaccid (unaroused, not erected states) there is very little blood - erection occurs when these 3 cylinders of spongy tissue are filled with blood and expand, making penis STIFF (sorry atwal) - erection results entirely from blood flow - it is said the human penis contains a bone, this however is not true, BUT in other species for example like dogs- the penis does have a bone which aids them in intromission (dick in vagina); HUMANS DO NOT HAVE BONE - skin of penis is usually hairless - the foreskin is an additional layer of skin that forms a sheath-like covering the glans; it may or may not be present on male depending on whether the male is circumcised or not - small glands under the foreskin called smegma; aids in the retractability of the foreskin; if foreskin is not cleaned thoroughly then it produces a very bad smell - circumcision refers to the surgical cutting away or removal of the foreskin - WHO said globally about 30% of males of the age of 15 are circumcised - varies in country though; middle eastern, central asia, and muslum asian countries and some africian countries males are almost all circumcised - less than 20% in south and central america, europe and many parts of asia (in canada its done within a few days after birth) - always circumcision can be done for religious reasons ex. jewish people (been done for thousands of years; symbolizes the covenant between god and the jewish people, and is done on 18th day after birth) - some cultures do it at puberty as a initiation ritual or (rite de passage);ability for a man to withstand the pain is seen as a sign of manhood - there have been finding in medical pro’s and cons to circumcision - males babies that are not circumcised are 11 times more likely to get urinary tract infection - also uncircumcised men have a higher risk of infection with HIV, the AIDS virus - it is said that the inner surface of the foreskin is more susceptible to these diseases therefore increasing the rate - women who had sex with circumcised men had lower results of cervical cancer - sexual pleasure stems to have no difference is whether you are circumcised or not - other forms of genital cutting is done throughout the world (supercision and subincision) - super
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