Textbook Notes (362,790)
Canada (158,054)
Psychology (4,729)
Chapter 1

Chapter 1-Sexuality in Perspective.docx

9 Pages
Unlock Document

Western University
Psychology 2075
Hayden Woodley

Chapter 1: Sexuality in Perspective  Why study sex? o Most people curious – taboo topic today o Important force in many people’s lives o Concerns about our own sexual functioning and want to improve it  Multidisciplinary topic, cannot be confined to one discipline Sex and Gender  The term sex is rather ambiguous – can refer to gender or sexuality  Gender refers to male/female, sex refers to sexual behaviour  Biologist: Any behaviour that increases the likelihood of gametic union (sperm and egg)  but now have bc so sex and reproduction are separate  Alfred Kinsey: sex was behaviour that leads to orgasm o Problems: not everyone orgasms  Undergraduate students very narrow definition of sex o Only ¼ thought oral sex was defined as sex  Sexual Behaviour: behaviour that produces arousal and increases chance of orgasm Influences on Sexuality Religion  Source of values and ethics regarding sexuality and powerful influence on the sexual attitudes and behaviour of many people  Every religion different in their sexual views of right and wrong  Until about 100 years ago and still in some cultures it provides all the info one knew about sex  Greece  Mythology  Open about homo and hetero sexuality o Original humans were double creatures with 2x normal number of limbs (double males, double females) o Gods fearing their power split them in half, and they searched for their other half o Heterosexuals  splitting of half male, half female o Homosexual  double males, or double females  15 century Christians  wet dreams  mating with tiny spiritual creatures o Incubi and succubi put forth in a papal bull (official document) o And in a companion book  The Malleus Maleficarum (witch’s hammer)  became the official manual in witch trials (Inquisition)  Muslims believe intercourse is one of the finest pleasures of life reflecting on teachings of Muhammad o Firstly source of pleasure, secondly means to reproduce  Influence of religion on Canadians is huge  Christians use their interpretation of the bible to justify their opposition to gays and same sex marriage  Others say this has more to do with homophobia and prejudice than religion Science  Scientific study of sex began in the 19 century, religion was against this  Dutch microscopist Anton Van Leeuwenhoek had discovered sperm swimming in human semen  1875 Oskar Hertwig first observed the first fertilization of the egg by the sperm in sea urchins  Human not observed until 20 century  Freud advanced scientific understanding of psychological aspects of sex, he was founder of psychiatry and psychoanalysis  Began their work in the Victorian era (late 1800s) o Norms about sexuality were extremely rigid and oppressive o Men had mistresses or abused children to fulfill their sexual needs o Dr. Clelia Mosher conducted study over 30 years on small sample of Victorian women, actually went against stereotype that they were ridged o 80% wanted sex o 72% had an orgasm  Henry Havelock Ellis  a physician in Victorian England, conducted lots of information on sexuality- including medical and anthropological findings o Believed in women as sexual creatures o Said sexual deviations from the norm were normal o Considered forerunner of modern sexual research  Richard von Krafft-Ebing  Studied pathological sexuality o 200 case histories of pathological individuals o Book called Psychopathia Sexualis o Coined terms sadism, masochism and pedophilia o Heterosexuality and homosexuality entered the English language in the translation of his book  Magnus Hirschfeld o Founded first sexual research institute and administered the fist large scale sex survey  10 000 people, 130 item questionnaire o Most destroyed by Nazis o First journal devoted to sexuality, established a marriage counseling service, worked for legal reforms and gave advice on contraception and sec problems o Interested in homosexuality o Pioneer sex researcher th  In 20 century major breakthroughs  massive surveys of human sex behaviour  1940s- Alfred Kinsey  William Masters and Virginia Johnson investigations of sexual disorders and physiology of sexual response o Changed way people thought about sex and people talked about it more openly o Other cultures info being considered o 1990s study of sex n close relationships  Never major survey in Canada  Some questions in the Canada Community Health Survey etc.  But lots of smaller surveys  Scientific study of sex has not yet become a separate, unified academic discipline but some researchers call themselves sexologists  Seems to interdisciplinary The Media  May play larger role than religion now  35% of programs in a week show some kind of sexual behaviour in 2005  Up from 23% in 1998  Only 2% of sex scenes show protection and rare for them to talk about safe sex  But references to safer sex are increasing  47% of Canadians think there’s too many sexual programming on prime time  More influenced by TV than science  Three types of influence o 1) Cultivation  think it represents reflection of what really happen in our culture (think divorce is as common as on soap operas) o 2) Agenda setting  News tells us what agenda to pay attention to o 3) Social Learning  Characters serve as models who we imitate  Teens who watch racy shows engage earlier in sexual activity  Internet newest and perhaps most powerful mass media influence  2009 80% of Canadian adults online for non business reasons  86% of male students and 39% females viewed erotic pics or videos online  25 men and 13% engaged in sexual activity online (webcams, MSN)  Good and bad source  good for health info, bad  sexual solicitation Cross Cultural Perspectives on Sexuality  Culture: traditional ideas and values transmitted to members of a group by symbols. These then serve as a basis for patterns of behaviour observed in the group  Ethnocentrism: The tendency to regard one’s own ethnic group and culture as superior to others and to believe that’s its customs and way of life are the standards by which other cultures should be judged  Wide variation in sexual behaviour from one culture to the next o Canadians more permissive attitudes than US o All societies regulate sexual behaviour in some way  Incest taboos are pretty much universal: a regulation prohibiting sexual interaction between close blood relatives (brother/sister, father/daughter)  Most condemn rape (both of these are illegal in Canada)  Study of 59 cultures found big differences in patterns of sexual behaviour Variations in Sexual Techniques  Kissing common here but not in entire world o Thonga Africa  thought it was funny o Tribes of BC  suck lips and tongue to pass saliva  Island of Ponape: man puts fish in women’s vulva and then licks it out prior to oral sex  Brazillian highlands some inflict pain on their partners o Women bite bits of men’s eyebrows off and spit them aside o Men tug at women’s eyebrows and rip hair out o Or bite partner till they bleed or scar  Some Irish (Inis Beag) only have sex once or twice a month – secrecy concerning act page 10  Mangaians have it several times a night at least the young  Santals of South Asia have it at least 5 times a day  Canada in the middle of this spectrum  Many cultures forbid intercourse a certain times o Postpartum sex (after women gives birth) from days to years Masturbation  Self-stimulation of genitals to produce sexual arousal  Widely varies across cultures  Some tolerate and encourage it during childhood and adolescence whereas other condemn it at any age  Almost all express some disapproval but most practice it
More Less

Related notes for Psychology 2075

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.