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Chapter 17

Chapter 17 - Sex for Sale.docx

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Department
Psychology
Course
Psychology 2075
Professor
William Fisher
Semester
Spring

Description
Chapter 17: Sex for Sale • 2 ways sex bought and sold = commercial sex work + pornography Commercial Sex Work • sex workers = prostitutes, escorts, erotic dancers, phone sex workers o in non-therapeutic massage parlours o pornographic models + actors • term sex work – focuses on activity, not person’s identity • commercial sex worker – engage in sexual acts for money or drugs in non-discriminating fashion (prostitute) • most of the time – other person you buy or sell from is friend or an acquaintance • illegal in Canada = buying and selling of sex • various activities related to prostitution are criminal offences o communication offences = stopping cars, slowing traffic to engage in prostitution or obtain sex services of prostitute o Ontario Superior Court Judge (2010) – struck down these sections of criminal code as violating constitution  b/c they increased risk of harm to street prostitutes so status of section is uncertain • cities attempt to control sex work through o by laws pertaining to zoning, traffic, and licensing of businesses • prostitution = minor offence o fine or short jail term – for repeat offenders • illegal, sentences are higher than communication offences o common bawdy house – place where prostitution occurs o procuring – pimping o living on money made from prostitution • massage parlour – perform sexual services are illegal if police prove purpose of massage parlour(reality = difficult) o engage in prostitution o or communication abt price of sexual services • criticism of current law = prostitution is legal but not clear where it can take place o chance of arresting is low, so laws do little to discourage prostitution • communication offences – rarely get charged o more sex workers than customers are charged with more severe sentences o more men who pay for sex with women are charged than men who pay for sex with men  b/c male police officers do not like to pose as prostitutes to entrap clients o penalize women more often and severely than men  on street – more than off street • Angus Reid Poll o 38% Canadians believe prostitution is morally acceptable o more Canadians believe prostitution is moral than extramarital affair + illegal drug use are moral o 41% - current provisions protect public good o 41% - unfair b/c force prostitutes into unsafe situations o 48% - neither clients or sex workers should be punished for prostitution o men more accepting of prostitution than women • Vancouver study – women in sex work o almost all physically or sexually assaulted • Canada – average of 7 prostitutes killed each year • if prostitution is decriminalized o ensure children not forced into prostitution o penalize pimps and other people who profit from sex work • Robert Gemme – Quebec sexologist o we need to eliminate legal consequences of prostitution o we need to remove negative effects that result from social stigma attached to prostitution (like term, sex worker) o prostitution = trade regulated like any other trade (get all benefits like any other worker) • other Canadians do not favour decriminalizing activities related to prostitution o prostitution made some places dangerous and unpleasant Female Sex Workers • VENUES o commercial sexual activity occurs in # of settings or venues o nature of venue or social/sexual context influences  type of sex worker and client found there  the activity that occurs and its associated risks o call girl – most expensive and exclusive category of sex workers  works out of her own residence, making appointments with clients landline, cellphone or internet  middle-class background + may be university graduate  dress expensively + lives upscale neighbourhood o brothel – house of prostitution  declined after WWII  in past 20 years – replaced by in-call services (employ women working regular shifts in an apartment)  initial contact = telephone  manager or madam = determines conditions of work, fees to be charged, collects % of fee  less choice of clients (sometimes more than one per shift)  brothel + in-call services = illegal in Canada under Criminal Code provision (common bawdy house) o massage parlour – place where massages and sexual services can be purchased  sensual or erotic massage – advertised to indicate type of parlour they are  in professional buildings, expensively decorated - provide food and drinks - 100-300$ or more - charge cards accepted – restaurant on bank statement  storefront parlours in commercial sex districts - no amenities, 40-100$ o escort service: Alternative Lifestyle Services, First Affair, All Yours, Versatile Entertainment and Hubbies for Hire  employ men and women  standard menu or escort have activities to do with client  out-call service – refers to prostitution in this setting, since escorts go to clients - unsafe because cannot control setting - escort calls service when arrives and leaves  licence escorting – Calgary, Edmonton, Winnipeg, and Windsor - Windsor – differs b/c allow escorts to work out of their own homes instead of requiring them to set up offices in specially zoned areas of city (to treat escorts same as other independent ppl) o streetwalker – lower status sex worker (most visible)  less attractive, less fashionable than call girl  charges less for services – 20 $ for quickie  impose strict time constraints on customer  Montreal street sex workers – 1800-2000 per week  Vancouver – 18,000 annual  most likely arrested  child or juvenile sex workers – street prostitutes - half sex workers – enter < 16 yrs old - increasing demand in child prostitutes - 1988 – prohibited buy sex services from <18 yrs old - Federal/Provincial/Territorial Working Group on Prostitution → youth in prostitution need help, not offenders o women go back and forth as escort services and call girl • THE ROLE OF THIRD PARTIES o pimp – sex worker’s companion, protector and master  theft and violence – sex worker tell police, so pimp watches over her  Canada – majority adult sex workers work without a pimp - but many child prostitutes do have a pimp o madam – woman who manages or owns an in-call service, out-call service, brothel or escort service  experienced and skilled at managing sex workers and businesses o in other venues there may be third parties  massage parlours employ managers on premises at all times and closely control employees o third parties – reduce independence of sex workers + force to perform activities OR work with clients they don’t want to o sex trafficking – recruitment and control of persons by threat or force or deception for purposes of sexual exploitation  girls/young women – ads, promise them education/good job/husband (developed country) - arrive in destination country – captives  work in bars, brothels, massage parlours – moved every few weeks  7 billion profit per year  UN – 10s of 1000s girls/young women trafficked each year (1/2 children) - most in Germany, US, and Italy – brought to Canada for sex trade or kept as virtual prisoners  women exploited = third parties control every detail of their lives  trafficking of children = overpopulation, poverty and lack of education • THE CAREER OF A SEX WORKER o western countries – economics (desire for money, material goods, exciting lifestyle) o some women  attracted by desire for money, material goods and exciting lifestyle  attracted to image of call girl  enter out of economic necessity, in order to survive - increase in applicants for positions in strip and sex clubs during recession of 2008-09  become sex workers to support a drug addiction  forced by husband or lover o prostitution – apprenticeship (learn skills), taught by pimps experienced wives, taught by madam o mid-career sex worker  if successful, begin work independently  move from in-call to out-call as become more experience at managing clients  addicted to drugs – forced to work long hrs & service many customers in > one venue to support habit o best part of sex work – money (chose it over other minimum wage jobs) o concerns – avoid police, desire to remain anonymous, fear of violence o squaring up or leaving the life – giving up sex work  PEERS – Prostitutes, Empoweerment, Education and Resource Society - In several Canadian cities – support, train & resources to help sex workers leave trade  Stella – educate public, fight discrimination, and promote decriminalization of work (Quebec) • SEX WORKER’S WELL-BEING o Netherlands – 100 women worked for year  ¼ doing well = few physical/psychosocial complaints, problem-focused coping strategies, satisfied w. life  ¼ not well = headaches, backaches, anxiety, depression, coping = dissociation/denial, dissatisfaction o risks to women and her well-being varied according to venue she worked in  Netherlands – sex work is legal - work in windows = more clients, earned less per customer than work in-call and out-call services - work on streets = greater risk of arrest and violence by clients o Netherlands – indoor sex worker, average 9 hr work day  > 1/3 – worked more than 40 hrs per week, ½ - no holidays in preceding year  high on depersonalization – working due to force, violence, lack of control in interaction with clients o prostitution illegal – health outcomes worse o trafficking – higher risk b/c suffer abuse and injury by clients and masters, illness infection, medical neglect o sex workers with HIV – usually injecting drugs (gives more risk)  western world - risk greater in private life than sex work o violence and psychological distress – reflect stigma associated with sex work  consequences of distancing referred to as depersonalization o independent women – view themselves as professionals, providing therapy, sexual healing or sex education o role of early abuse – poorer well-being, cause of entry into sex work, early sex activity + drug use, run away Customers • use of prostitutes decreased in past 50 years o increased non-marital and casual sex activity • sex workers refer to their customers as johns o occasional johns – businessmen o repeat clients – relationship o compulsive johns – major sexual outlet • men = ½ married and happy with relationship, avg. 38 yrs old, 79% complete high school, 21% bachelor’s degree, 21% child sex abuse o 24 yrs old – first purchase o not representative sample - Vancouver • client wants bounded authenticity – real sex, a sense that she or he matters and is desirable, without the effort or commitment Male Sex Workers • male sex workers less likely charged than female sex workers • serve a male clientele – 97% of clients are male • male sex workers never work in street – due to gender-role socialization (females never go looking to pay for sex) • work in: escort services & provide companionship and sexual gratification on an out-call basis o massage parlours o gigolo – provide companionship and sexual gratification on continuing basis to woman in exchange for money  one client at a time o male escort services – for male clients, • hustlers – cater to men o straight, not gay o strict rules for customers to follow – only fellatio on them o (1) full time street and bar hustlers – rarely have pimp (like female streetwalkers)  younger than other sex workers, less violence from pimps or customers  work from indoor locations – telephones or internet  licensed escorts and masseur(rather than street workers) o (2) full time call boys or kept boys  have exclusive clients, more attractive + sexually versatile o (3) part-time hustlers (largest group)  students or ppl employed in another occupation – in future will get job and be settled good  only when they need money  less likely come from dysfunctional families • study – gay and bisexual internet based male escorts o main reason – monetary
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