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Chapter 6

Chapter 6

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Psychology 2075
William Fisher

Chapter 9: Sexual Response CHAPTER OVERVIEW - Masters and Johnson conducted important program of research on physiology of human sexual response and found that two [2] basic physiological processes occur during arousal and orgasm: vasocongestion and myotonia - The sexual response cycle occurs in three [3] stages: excitement, orgasm, and resolution - Their research indicates that there is no physiological distinction between clitoral and vaginal orgasms in women, which refutes an early idea of Freud’s - They also provided convincing evidence of the existence of multiple orgasm in women - Criticism of Masters and Johnson’s model are that (1) they ignored cognitive factors, and (2) their selection of research participants may have led to a self-fulfilling prophecy in their results - According to Kaplan’s cognitive-physiological model, three [3] components are involved in sexual responses: desire, vascongestion, and muscle contraction - According to the intimacy mode;, some people rarely experience spontaneous desire and desire for intimacy motivates them to engage in sexual activity - The dual control model holds that two [2] basic processes (excitation and inhibition) are involved in sexual response, and that our responses to sexual stimuli are shaped by culture and early learning - Emotion is another important psychological aspect of sexual response - The nervous system and sex hormones are important in sexual response - The nervous system functions in sexual response by a combination of spinal reflexes (best documented for erection and ejaculation) and brain influences (particularly of the limbic system) - Hormones are important to sexual behaviour, both in their influences on prenatal development (organizing effects) and in their stimulating influence on adult sexual behaviour (activating effects) - Testosterone is crucial for maintaining sexual desire in both men and women - Pheromones are biochemical’s secreted outside the body that play an important role in sexual communication and attraction o Much evidence based on research with animals (but evidence in humans is accumulating rapidly) - Sexual pleasure is produced by stimulation of various areas of the body called erogenous zones - Sexual self-stimulation, or autoeroticism, includes masturbation and sexual fantasies - Many people have sexual fantasies while masturbating or having sex with a partner - An important technique in two-person sex is hand stimulation of the partner’s genitals - Touching other areas of the body and kissing are also important - The other senses (sight, smell, and hearing) can be used in creating sexual arousal - Although there are infinite varieties in the positions in which one can have penile-vaginal intercourse, there are four [4] basic positions: man on top (missionary position), woman on top, rear entry, and side to side - There are two [2] kinds of mouth-genital stimulation: cunnilingus (mouth stimulation of the female genitals) and fellatio (mouth stimulation of the male genitals) - Anal intercourse involves inserting the penis
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