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Chapter 1

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Western University
Psychology 2075

Scientific Study of Sex: Introduction and History Why the Scientific Study of Sex? Justification for the Scientific Study of Sex • Sex Research is Core Psychological Science o Clinical Psychology – trained to diagnose and intervene therapeutical to assist people with mental health adjustment issues to adapt to demands of society  Clinincal psychology has invested little interest in human sexuality  Treat sexual dysfunctions o Biological psychology – running FMRI to identify regions of brain that light up when you do various things  Interested in endocrine and hormones and neuroendocrinological control o Developmental psychology  Transition in cognitive and behavioural patterns of infancy, latechildhood, adolescene and adults o Personality psychology  Devoted to study individual diff and how one person’s characteristics may be contrasted to others  Interested in assessing personal characteristics but not interested in sexual characteristics of people and how to compare sexual characteristics of people o Social psychology  Spend lifetime examining social interactions  To study interpersonal psychology began in 1970s o Evolutionary psychology  Sex is way you get genetic material from one generation to another • Sex Research is Core Social Science: o Sociology – interested among other things in structural determinants of behaviour  Gender, marginalization – affect sexual expression o Anthropology – interested among other things in customs and practices of what was regarded than as lesser developed cultures  When we were white skinned anthropologists studying – it was okay to study it o Economics – sexual relationship.. o History - …. • Sex Research is Core Medical Science o Anatomy – where would we be without vascular and neurological structures that accompany blood congestion and arousal o Physiology – do not really study it o Biochemistry – study molecular basis of erection  phosphodiesterase 5 inhibitor injected into himself and they were basic to biochemistry of erections o endocrinology – recently visited sexual stage in basic science of this information o virology – sexually transmitted viruses • People Want to Know About Sex: The Social Comparison Motive o Scientists have to study sexuality to provide information to people who do want to know about it o Kensey – bug specialist with focus on wasps  Entered domain on sex research - he was asked to teacha course on marriage and the family  Found little sex literature on marriage and family  Began collecting sexual histories  Him and his colleagues took sexual histories from more than 14 000 men and owmen  Categorized sexual history in terms of age and gnereation of birth • People at diff age develop sexually differently  Kinsey measured degree of religiosity, education status, gender of people who gave the sexual histories o Human beings have powerful drive to compare attributes and accomplishments with some standard o We can engage in social comparison by comparing what we do with other individuals o Don’t have access to sexual social comparison – its awkward to talk about it casually so o Social comparison motive in human sexuality is strong  People want to know if they are normal – stole books from library, search up for sexuality related books more • People Need to Know About Sex o Sex Leads to Babies • Canadian Contraception Study 2004 (N=1599) • 28% of couples had unplanned pregnancies o Lack of adherence to contraceptive consistency • Percent Seuxality Active Couples Do Not Always Use Birth Control, Past 6 Months • The percen on graph indicate people who don’t use contraception • 3 most used contraception is withdrawal in Canada Sex Leads to Abortions • 1600 in London examined • Outcomes of unplanned pregnancies – married and unmarried women: • 38% have … • What characterized women who resorted abortions to women • Intimate partner violence + victim of sexual abuse or coercion = doubled risk of therapeutic abortion • Listen to recording Sex Leads to Infections: Bacterial (Chlamydia, Gonorrhea) Viral (HSV, HPV, HIV) • Average age of sexual activity is age 16,17,18 o If single partner monogymy starts at age 31 – serial monogymy (1 faithful commited relationship)  Accumulation of exposure to biological risk doesn’t diff from someone who is sleeping around with more than one person • Average age of first marriage in Canada is 31 • Factor is in drinking and smoking to avoid risk sand acquire STI Montreal University Women: Probability of HPV Infection During 36 Month Follow-Up • Each women tested for HPV by DNA testing • HPV is extremely prevalent STI • Some HPV causes warts – low risk variants of HPV • Most people will acquire HPV in sexual careers and most people spontaneously clear it o Some people get warts o Some people get precancerous changes in neck, cervix, anal • Panel A - 60% • Onael B- 40% • Panel C – 50% Sexuality and Gender • Sex – something you do in bed • Gender – identity or personal sense of femaleness, maleness, etc. • Major discussion about sexual behaviour of men and women • Sexual scientists – there is amazingly profound diff in sexually derived women Sexuality and Relationships • Majority of research we share about relationships and link between relationship quality and sexual satisfaction is individually based o Ask one member – how is relationship going and wht kind of person are you? o Sexual satisfaction is influenced by both partners o Couple based research now demonstrated that partner A research affect partner B • Some people comfortable with close engagement with partner • Some indidual with relationships from maybe infancy so attachement avoidness • Some people attachment anxious – constantly examine for any rejections • Sexual Orientation • Increasing evidence on biological basis of sexual orientation – o Thought heterohomosexuality where … • Homophobic – certain aea on white chromosome that is indicating homophobic • Are there diff in male and female chronicity • What is cause - • Trinary - hetero, homo and bisexual • Binary – hetero and homo • Stigma that is born and social rejection born with people with non-normative sexual orientations that may be encountered Sexuality and Aging • How does cancer prostate and stuff affect with sex? Sexuality and Disability • Will physiotherapists provide people with assistance for sexual adjustment • If doing pshysiotherapy with painful back maybe give physiotherapy adjustment for sexual function • Nursing and medicine give support to sexuality and disbiality Sexual Function Concerns • ISD inhibited sexual desire was assessed in 1600 canadian women o 40% - don’t have organism from sexual stimulation o Pain – 14% o Erectile dysfunction – 5% Sexual Assault • Review data concerning prevalence of sexual coercion with female and male victims • Looks like 25% - forced to have sexual intercourse o More common among unmarried than married Sexuality and Controversy • Busted by police to
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