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Chapter 2

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Psychology 2075
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CHAPTER TWO THEREOTICAL PERSPECTIVES ON SEXUALITYFreud is concerned with libidoWilson the sociobiologist would be thinking how mating behaviour in humans is similar to such behaviour in other species of animalsproduct of evolutionary selectionBandura might be thinking of how sexual arousal and orgasm act as powerful positive reinforcers that will lead the couple to repeat this act frequentlyGagnons thoughts might be about the social scripting of sexualitybegins with kissing and ends with intercourseEVOLUTIONARY PERSPECTIVESevolutionary perspectives use principles from evolutionary biology to explain why certain patterns of social behaviour and psychological mechanisms have evolved in animalsthe idea that some behaviours are a result of evolution is called sociobiology sexual behaviour is a form of social behaviour so sociobiologists often based on observation of other species argue that certain sexual behaviours evolved because they gave our ancestors an evolutionary advantageevolution a theory that all living things have acquired their present forms through gradual changes in their genetic endowment over successive generationsevolution occurs via natural selection the process by which the individuals who are best adapted to their environment are more likely to survive reproduce and pass on their genes to the next generationhow do humans choose matesthe sociobiologist argues that many of the characteristics we evaluate in judging attractiveness are indicative of the health and vigour of the individualthese are related to the persons reproductive potentialnatural selection would favour individuals preferring mates who would have maximum reproductive successsociolobiologists can also explain why the nuclear family structure of a man a woman and their offspring is found everywhere in societyonce a man and a woman mate there are several obstacles to reproductive successinfant vulnerability and maternal deathtwo mechanisms that support the reduction of these obstacles are pairbonding between mother and father and attachment between infant and parentthe offsprings chances of survival are greatly increased if the parents bond emotionally and if the parents have a propensity for attachmentparents are most interest in the survival and reproductive success of their genetic offspringparental investment the behaviour and resources invested in offspring to achieve this endin addition to natural selection Darwin also proposed a mechanism called sexual selection selection that results from differences in traits affecting access to matesit consists of two processes
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