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Chapter 14

Psychology 1000 Chapter Notes - Chapter 14: Unconditional Positive Regard, Carl Jung, Erik Erikson

Course Code
PSYCH 1000
John Campbell

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Chapter 14 Personality
Personality the distinctive and relatively enduring ways of thinking, feeling, and acting that
characterize a person’s responses to life situations
Aspects of personality have three characteristics:
o Seen as components of identity that distinguish that person from other people
o Behaviours viewed as being caused primarily by internal rather than environmental factors
o Behaviours seem to fit together in a meaningful fashion, suggesting an inner personality that
guides and directs behaviour
Study of personality has been guided by the psychodynamic, humanistic, biological, behavioural,
cognitive, and sociocultural perspectives
The Psychodynamic Perspective
Psychodynamic theorist look for the causes of behavior in a dynamic interplay of inner forces that often
conflict with one another focuses on unconscious determinants of behavior
Freud’s Psychoanalytic Theory
o Unconscious part of mind exerts great influence on behaviour
o Considered personality to be an energy system (steam engine of his day)
o Instinctual drives generate physic energy
o Psychic energy generated by instinctual drives, this energy powers the mind and constantly
presses for either direct or indirect release
Buildup of sexual energy can be discharged directly through sexual activity, or
indirectly through fantasies or artistic depictions
o Mental events are divided:
Conscious events that we are presently aware of
Preconscious memories, thoughts, feelings, images that we are unaware of at the
moment, but can be recalled
Unconscious dynamic realm of wishes, feelings, and impulses that lie beyond our
o Personality divided into three separate but interacting structures:
Id primitive and unconscious part of the personality that contains the instincts
Operates according to the pleasure principle (seeks immediate gratification
or release, regardless of rational considerations or reality)
Only structure present at birth, is the source of all physic energy
Ego executive of personality that is partly conscious between impulses of id,
prohibitions of superego, and dictates of reality
Operates according to reality principle (tests reality to decide when the id
can safely discharge impulses)
Tests reality
Superego moral arm of personality that internalizes standards and values of society
(age 4 or 5) (what’s right and wrong)
Rewards compliance with pride, and non-compliance with guilt
o Id and superego are formed when child is young, ego develops later
o Iceberg analogy id is below the water (unconscious), while ego and superego are mostly
above water (conscious)
Ego is mostly above water, while superego has portions both above and under
o Unconscious conflict interaction of id, ego, and superego results in constant struggle,
causing anxiety
Reality anxiety ego’s fear of real world threats
Neurotic anxiety ego’s fear of id’s desires
Moral anxiety ego’s fear of guilt from superego
o Defense mechanisms unconscious processes by which the ego prevents the expression of
anxiety-arousing impulses
Repression ego uses some of its energy to prevent anxiety-arousing memories from
entering consciousness
Sublimination (displacement) completely masking the sinister underlying impulses
through other forms (art, sports, etc.)
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Rationalization urge reinterpreted in acceptable terms
Projection own urges seen in others (“I hate you” becomes “You hate me”)
Isolation memories allowed back into consciousness without motives or emotions
Regression mentally returning to an earlier, safer state
Conversion conflict converted into physical symptom (developing blindness so as
not to see an anxiety-arousing situation)
o Psychosexual stages stages of development in which psychic energy is focused on certain
body parts
Oral (0-2), Anal (2-3), Phallic (4-6), Latency (7-puberty), Genital (puberty+)
Deprivation or overindulgences in a stage can result in fixation, in which instincts
are focused on a particular theme
Oedipus complex the male child experiences erotic feelings toward his mother and
views his father as a rival (female’s complex referred to as Electra complex)
Evaluating Psychoanalytic Theory
o Why Disagreed?
1) Because Freud did not give social and cultural factors a sufficiently important role in
development and dynamics of personality. Stressed infantile sexuality to much.
2) Freud laid to much emphasis on the events of childhood as determinants of adult
o Alfred Adler insisted that humans are social beings who are motivated by social interest (the
desire to advance the welfare of others)
o Carl Jung developed analytic psychology
o Erik Erikson believed personality developed across the lifespan
Humans not only posses a personal unconscious of life experiences, but a collective
unconscious of memories accumulated throughout the history of humanity
Memories are represented by archetypes, inherited tendencies to interpret experience
in certain ways
Archetypes inherited tendencies to interpret experience in certain ways
o Object relations the images or mental representations that people form of themselves and
other people as a result of early experience with caregivers
The Humanistic Perspective
Self-actualization the total realization of one’s human potential
Carl Rogers’s Self Theory
o Believed that our behavior is a response to our immediate conscious experience of self and
o When forces that direct behavior are within us and not distorted/blocked by environment, they
can be trusted to direct us toward self-actualization
o Self an organized, consistent set of perceptions of and beliefs about oneself
Must have self-consistency (absence of conflict among self-perceptions) and
congruency (consistency between self-perceptions and experiences) to maintain self-
Guides our perceptions and directs our behavior
Experiences that are inconsistent with self-concept evokes threat and anxiety
o People are born with a need for positive regard (acceptance, sympathy, and love)
Unconditional positive regard communicated attitude of total and unconditional
acceptance of another person
Conditional positive regard dependant on behaviour of the child
Need for positive self-regard develops
Lack of unconditional positive regard leafs to belief that they are worthy of love only
when standards are met
Fosters development of conditions of worth that dictate when we approve
or disapprove of ourselves
o Fully functioning persons self-actualized people who are free from unrealistic conditions of
worth and who exhibit congruence, spontaneity, creativity, and a desire to develop further
Handley Cantril man requires the satisfaction of his survival needs, freedom, self-worth
Research on the Self
o Self-esteem how positively or negatively we feel about ourselves
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