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Chapter 14-17

Psychology 1000 Chapter Notes - Chapter 14-17: Observational Learning, Positive Psychology, Exposure Hierarchy

Course Code
PSYCH 1000
Laura Fazakas- De Hoog

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PSYCH1000: Final Exam
100 MC
Chapter 14: theories and theorists, research support, strengths and weaknesses,
Chapter 15: main theories, research
Symptoms, prevalence, biological, psychological, social
Chapter 17: theories, perspectives, compare treatments, assumptions, treatment
Personality Chapter 14:
Stable pattern of behavior personality
Psychodynamic Freud
o Conversion hysteria unconscious
o Personality as psychic energy
o ID pleasure, animal, pleasure principle
o Ego reality principle
o Superego moral
o Conscious, preconscious, and unconscious
o Psychosexual development development stages if there is too much or too
little gratification, personality will not be developed properly
New theories:
o Adler: humans motivated my social interests
o Karl Jung collective consciousness
o Current: object relations, early caregivers
o Self actualization
o Carl Rogers consistency between self-concept and experience if it is
consistent, you are fully functioning
o Self esteem, self verification, self enhancement, gender schemas
Social Cognitive Theories
o Behavior and cognitive
o Julian Rotter expectancy (likely) and reinforcement value (value)
o Internal vs external locus expectancy of personal control
o Albert bandura self efficacy belief of your own ability performance
experiences, observational learning, verbal persuasion, emotional arousal
Trait and Biological categorizing personalities
o Cattell 16 factors
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o Eysenck extroversion and introversion vs and instability vs psychotic
o Five traits
o Factor analysis clusters of behaviors that are correlated
o Personality assessment:
Projective psychoanalysis
Self report humanistic
Behavior assessment/remote sampling/observing
Physiological biological
o Psychodynamic no empirical evidence, hard to make predictions BUT first to
emphasize unconscious
o Humanistic too much self report BUT is measurable and testable, useful in
o Trait and biological does’t oer ith uderlyig psyh oditios that
produce personality BUT focused on empirical evidence
o Social cognitive strong scientific base, can explain inconsistencies over time
Chapter 15: Stress
Cognitive appraisal identifying the stressor and how one responds to it four aspects
of the process:
o Appraisal of the demands
o Determining available resources to cope
o Judging consequences
o Appraisal of personal meaning
General adaptation syndrome GAS alarm reaction, resistance, exhaustion adrenal
glands and endocrine
Stress and wellbeing is correlation, not causal
PTSD occurs in people with extreme stress and trauma
Stress decreases immune functioning, worsens medical conditions
Hardiness committed to families, work have control over outcomes appraise things
as challenges, rather than threats commitment, control, challenge less stressed
Self-efficacy, optimism, finding meaning, personality (type B people have less urgency,
more resistant to stress), physiological arousal, social support all have to do with
resistance to stress
o Problem focused study
o Emotion-focused denial, deal with anxiety of the situation, not the situation
o Social support
o Methods vary by gender, culture
o Social and problem focused is good but emotion has to do with avoidance
hih is’t good ut eotio is good if the situatio is out of otrol, traua
Health psychology:
o Health-enhancing behaviors vs. health compromising behaviors
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