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Chapter 6

Psychology 1000 Chapter Notes - Chapter 6: Methamphetamine, Soltyrei, Peyote


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYCH 1000
Professor
Terry Biggs
Chapter
6

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Chapter Six: States of Consciousness
Consciousness: awareness of ourselves and the environment
Characteristics of Consciousness:
Subjective and Private: eeroe’s lies are differet ad uderstood ol  the
Dynamic (ever-changing): consciousness is always changing throughout the day
Self Reflective and Central to our Sense of Self: the mind is aware of itself
Intimately Connected with the Process of Selective Attention: Paying attention to
specific stimuli and ignoring other parts (ex. Spotlight on stage)
Measuring States of Consciousness
Self Report: describing their experiences (subjective)
Psychological Measures: establish relationship between bodily states and mental
processes (objective)
Behavioural measures: observing behaviour (objective)
Levels of Consciousness: Psychodynamic and Cognitive Perspectives
Freud proposed three levels of awareness:
1. Conscious (ego): current awareness of thoughts, perceptions, mental events
tip of iceberg
2. Preconscious (superego): mental events outside current awareness but can be recalled
under certain conditions
3. Unconscious (Id): Unavailable to consciousness and includes instincts/desires
The Cognitive Viewpoint
Rejects the viewpoint of the unconscious mind driving urges and repressed conflicts
Views conscious/unconscious mind as information processors
Controlled Versus Automatic Processing
Controlled (Effortful) Processing: Voluntarily using attention/conscious effort ex. Difficult tasks
Automatic Processing: Performed with little or no conscious effort ex. Well-learned tasks
Divided Attention: Ability to perform more than one activity at the same time ex. Multi-tasking
The Emotional Unconscious: Unconscious processes can have emotional and motivational
effects ex. Being happy randomly
The Neural Basis of Consciousness
Visual Agnosia: inability to visually recognize objects
Blindsight: cannot see but eyes respond to visual stimuli
Consciousness is a Global Workspace: multiple activities throughout brain acting as one
Circadian Rhythms: Our Daily Biological Clocks
Circadian Rhythms: 24-hour biological cycles that help regulate bodily processes
Deterie hether e’re a orig/ight perso da-night cycle effects it)
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Suprachiasmatic Nuclei (SCN): regulates circadian rhythms & located in hypothalamus
Melatonin: a hormone that has a relaxing effect on the body
Light exposure, and daily activity schedules also help treat circadian disruptions
Free-running Circadian Rhythm: natural cycles lasting longer than 24 hours
Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD): Becoming depressed during certain months of the year
(usually when less amounts of sunlight, ex. Fall or winter)
Jet Lag: Circadian disruption caused by flying across several time zones
Best to fly west (lengthening the travel day)
Night Shiftwork: Most problematic circadian disruption is working night shifts
Sleeping and Dreaming
Circadian rhythms do not directly regulate sleep rather a readiness for sleep
Beta Waves: rai atiit he e’re aake ad alert
High frequency of 15-30 cycles per second but low amplitude (height)
Alpha Waves: rai atiit he e’re relaed ad dros
Slow waves of 8-12 cycles per second
Sleep Stages
1. Light sleep which you can be easily awaken (sometimes sudden body jerks/images)
Brain wave patterns become irregular and slower theta waves increase
2. Musles rela, reathig/heart rate are sloer, ad it’s harder to e aoke
Sleeping spindles occur (periodic 1-2 second bursts of brain-wave activity)
3. Regular slow and large delta waves (occurs more frequently as time goes on)
4. When delta waves dominate the EEG pattern
Stage ¾ are referred to as slow-wave sleep relaxed, activity decreased, hard to awaken
After 60-90 minutes of sleep, you go through the stages 1-2-3-4-3-2 followed by REM
REM Sleep: Sleep stage where our eyes move rapidly back and forth rapid eye movements
Usually dreaming during this period; heart rate quickens, breathing rapid/irregular,
brain waves resemble active wakefulness, and genital arousal occur.
REM Sleep Paralysis: he our od is highl aroused et looks like ou’re sleepig peaefull
eause ou’re arel oig – also called paradoxical sleep
REM sleep is not the only sleep stage where we dream/experience mental activity
The non-REM dream is shorter than a REM dream
o Non-REM dream = fixed/unmoving, REM-dream = vivid/story-like
Non-REM sleep is called sleep thoughts -similar to day-time thoughts not REM dreams
3 Importance Changes to our Sleep Patterns as We Age:
1. We sleep less as we age; 15-24 year olds sleep 8.5 hours a day elderly sleep under 6
2. REM sleep decreases during infancy and early childhood but remains stable afterwards
3. Time spent in stages 3 and 4 declines by adulthood we get little slow-wave sleep
Why Do We Sleep?
Restoration Model: Sleep recharges bodies allowing recovery from physical/mental fatigue
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We need to sleep to live, and function at our best
Evidence mildly supports this model (if physical activity increases, sleep barely does)
Adenosine increases = decreased brain alertness promoting sleep and slowing down body
o Belieed to hae a effet o hat eatl gets restored durig sleep
Evolutionary/Circadian Sleep Models: Ephasize that sleep’s ai purpose is to irease a
speies’ haes of survival
Over time, species circadian sleep-wake patterns adapted to whether it was
predator or prey (ex. Food requirements, defense methods, etc.)
REM Rebound effect: Increased REM sleep after being deprived of it
High activity during REM sleep may retain memories from the previous day
Sleep Disorders
Insomnia: Chronic difficulty falling asleep, staying asleep, or having a restful sleep
Most common falling asleep (young adults), staying asleep (older adults)
Most common sleeping disorder
Pseudoinsommniacs: Complain of insomnia but sleep normally when examined
Narcolepsy: extreme daytime sleepiness regardless of how much sleep they get at night
Experience Cataplexy: losing control of body but still conscious
REM-sleep behaviour disorder (RBD): being asleep but not paralyzed (still move)
Sleepwalking: Uresposie to people/o’t reeer alkig aroud hile asleep
10-30% of children sleepwalk at least once, common for children to outgrow it
5% of adults sleepwalk
Night Terrors/Sleep Terrors: More intense than nightmares but unlikely to be recalled next day
Most common during sleep stages 3 and 4
Dreams
Dreams most commonly occur during REM sleep (brain activity = highest in final hours of
sleep he iradia le’s preparig for e da
Why We Dream Theories
1. Freud’s Psychoanalytic Theory
Believed main purpose of dreaming is:
o Wish Fulfillment: gratification of unconscious desires/needs
Dream Manifest: The surfae stor that the dreaer reports
Latent Content: Deeper meaning
2. Activation-Synthesis Theory (Hobson & McCarley)
Brainstem bombards higher brain centers with random neural activity
Cerebral cortex interprets activity and creates a dream
Problem-Solving Dream Models: Dreas are’t ostraied  realit/ a help us sole issues
Cognitive-Process Dream Theories: Focus on process of how we dream conscious
thoughts/dreams are produced through the same systems
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