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Chapter 11

Psychology 1000 Chapter 11: chapter 11 psych 1000


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYCH 1000
Professor
Nick Skinner
Chapter
11

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Psychology Chapters 11, 12 and 13 TEXTBOOK Notes
CHAPTER 11: Emotion, Stress and Health
Emotion: a state of arousal involving facial and bodily changes, brain activation, cognitive appraisals,
subjective feelings, and tendencies toward action
- Psychological research suggests that everyone everywhere are born with certain basic or primary
emotions; which include fear, anger, joy, sadness.
- Secondary Emotions: emotions that are specific to certain cultures
Charles Darwin: argued that human facial expressions (smile, frown) are as innate as the wing flutter of
a frightened bird, the purr of a contented cat and the snarl of a threated wolf. Darwin also suggested
that facial expressions also probably evolved to help us communicate our emotional states to others and
create a response.
Paul Ekrman: developed a special coding system to analyze and identify each of the nearly 80 muscles of
the face, as well as the combinations of muscles associated with various emotions. When people try to
hide their feelings and put on emotions, they usually use different groups of muscles than they do for
authentic ones. Authentic smiles last two seconds; fake smiles may last 10 seconds or more.
Emotion and the Body
- facial expressions not only reflect out internal feelings; they also influence them.
Facial Feedback: The process by which the facial muscles send messages to the brain about the basic
emotion being expressed.
- The amygdala is a small structure found in the brain and it plays a key role in emotion, especially anger
and fear.
- The cortex has two major parts: left prefrontal cortex and right prefrontal cortex. The left prefrontal
orte is assoiated ith approah eotios happiess, ager. The right prefrontal cortex is
assoiated ith ithdraal eotios fear, sadess.
Mirror Neurons: brain cells that fire when a person or animal observes others carrying out an action;
they are involved in empathy, initiation and reading emotions.
- Mirror euros eale us to idetif ith hat others are feelig, uderstad other people’s
intentions and imitate their actions
William Marston: invented the polygraph machine (lie detector). The polygraph is based on the
assumption that a lie generates emotional arousal.
Stanley Schachter and Jerome Singer: argued that the experience of emotion depends both on
physiological arousal and on how you are interpret and explain that arousal. One classic text of their
theory was the use of a rather unorthodox methodology to manipulate arousal in their mal participants
they employed a very high suspension bridge over the Capilano Gorge in North Vancouver.
- the opliated i of eotios that people feel he the hae disappoited is or relieig
losses shos ho poerfull thoughts affet eotioal resposes
Emotions Linked to Culture and Gender
- Some psychologists say the difference between primary emotions and more complex variations is
reflected in language all over the world. “oe do’t thik uh of priar-secondary distinctions
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