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Chapter 13

Psychology 1000 Chapter 13: psych 1000 chapter 13

Course Code
PSYCH 1000
Nick Skinner

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Socialization: the process by which children learn the rules and behaviour expected of them by society
- before and after birth is a marvel of maturation
- parental development is divided into three stages: the germinal, the embryonic and the fetal
- newborns begin life with several motor reflexes, automatic behaviours that are necessary for survival
- infants need cuddling as much as they need food
- attachment begins with physical toughing and cuddling between infant and parents
Contact comfort: the pleasure of being touched and held with very close physical contact, it is the basis
of the infants first physical attachment
Separation Anxiety: the distress that most children develop at about 6-8 months of age when their
primary caregivers temporarily leave them with strangers
- it beings the first few months
- adults use baby talk which researchers call parentese. Parentese helps babies learn the melody and
rhythm of their native language.
- by 4-6 months babies can recognize words
- 18 months 2 years, toddlers begin to produce words in two or three combinations. The child’s first
combinations of words have been described as telegraphic.
Telegraphic speech: a child’s first word combinations which omit unnecessary words
Jean Piaget: proposed a “flower-booming” theory of cognitive development.
Object Permanence: the understanding which develops throughout the first year that an object
continues to exist even when you cannot see it or touch it
Conversation: the understanding that the physical properties of objects or the amount of liquid in a
glass, can remain the same even when their form of appearance changes
Lev Vygotsky: emphasized social cultural influences on children’s development
Power assertion: a method of child rearing in which the parent uses punishment and authority to
correct child’s misbehaviour
Induction: a method of child rearing in which the parent appeals to the child’s own abilities, sense of
responsibility, and feelings for others in connecting the child’s misbehaviour
Gender Identity: the fundamental sense of being male or female, it is independent of whether the
person conforms to the social and cultural rules of gender
Gender typing: the process by which children learn the abilities, interests and behaviours associated
with being masculine or feminine in their culture
Intersex condition: conditions in which chromosomal or hormonal anomalies cause a child to be born
with ambiguous genitals or genitals that conflict with the infants chromosomes
- adolescence refers to the period of development between puberty and adulthood
Puberty: the age at which a person becomes capable of sexual reproduction Menarche: the onset of
menstruation during puberty
Menopause: the cessation of menstruation and of the production of ova; it is usually a gradual process
lasting up to several years
Fluid intelligence: the capacity for deductive reasoning and the ability to use new information to solve
problems; it is relatively independent of education and tends to decline in old age
Crystalized intelligence: cognitive skills and specific knowledge of information acquired over a lifetime;
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