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Chapter 16

Psychology 1000 Chapter 16: psych 1000 chapter 16

Course Code
PSYCH 1000
Nick Skinner

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Drugs commonly prescribed for mental disorders include the following:
1. Antipsychotic drugs: drugs used primarily in the treatment of schizophrenia and other psychotic
disorders; they often used off label and inappropriately for other disorders such as dementia and
impulsive aggressiveness
2. Antidepressant drugs: drugs used primarily in the treatment of mood disorders, especially depression
and anxiety
3. Anti-anxiety drugs (tranquilizers): drugs commonly but often inappropriately prescribed for patients
who complain of unhappiness, anxiety and worry
4. Lithium carbonate: a drug frequently given to people suffering from bipolar disorder
Some Cautions and Drug Treatments:
1. Placebo Effect: the apparent success of medication or treatment due to the patients expectations or
hopes rather than to the drug or treatment itself
2. High Relapse and Dropout Rates
3. Dosage Problems
- Therapeutic Window: the amount of a drug that is enough but not too much, taking into account the
fact that the same dose of a drug may be metabolized differently in men and women, old people and
young people and different ethnic groups
4. Disregard for Effective, Possibly Better, Nonmedical Treatments
5. Unknown long term risks
6. Untested off-label Uses
Direct Brain Intervention
- Psychosurgery: any surgical procedure that destroys selected areas of the brain believed to be involved
in emotional disorders or violent, impulsive behavior
- Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT): a procedure used in cases of prolonged and severe major depression,
in which a brief brain seizure is induced
Kinds of Psychotherapy
1. psychodynamic therapy
- Primary goal: insight into unconscious motives and feelings that prolong symptoms
- Methods: probing unconscious motives, examining the process of transference, exploring childhood
2. behavior and Cognitive Therapy
- Primary Goal: modification of self defeating behaviors and of irrational or invalidated beliefs
- Methods: graduated exposure, skill training, behavior records; prompting the client to test beliefs
against evidence
3. Humanist and Existential Therapy
- Primary Goal: insight on oneself and the world and finding meaning in life and accepting inevitable loss
- Methods: non judgment settings, philosophic discussions
4. Family and Couples Therapy
- Primary Goal: modification of family patterns, resolution of conflicts, breaking out of destructive
- Methods: any preceding methods to change family patterns that perpetuate problems and conflicts or
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