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Chapter 4

Psychology 1000 Chapter Notes - Chapter 4: Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer, Gene Knockout, Human Cloning


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYCH 1000
Professor
Tom Haffie
Chapter
4

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CHAPTER 4 STUDY QUESTIONS
GENETICS, EVOLUTION, & HUMAN BEHAVIOR
1. Define the following terms/concepts:
· Adaptation: allow organisms to meet recurring environmental challenges to
their survival, thereby increasing their reproductive ability
· Altruism: occurs when one individual helps another, but in so doing
accrues some cost
· Chromosomes: tightly coiled strands of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and
protein that contain the genes
· Concordance: the likelihood that two people share a particular
characteristic
· Evolution: a change over time in the frequency with which particular
genesand the characteristics they produceoccur within an
interbreeding population
· Genes: the biological units of heredity, located on the chromosomes
· Genetic determinism: the view (sometimes erroneous) that genes have
invariant and unavoidable effects; the idea that genes are destiny.
· Natural Selection: the evolutionary process through which characteristics
that increase the likelihood of survival are preserved in the gene pool and
thereby become more common in a species over time
· Reaction range: the genetically influenced upper and lower limits.
Environmental effects will then determine where an organism falls within
these genetically determined boundaries.
2. Explain the difference between dominant and recessive genes.
- Dominant: a gene, which when present, will produce a particular
characteristic
- Recessive: a gene whose characteristic will be masked by a
corresponding dominant gene; its characteristic will be expressed if the
correspondent gene is also recessive
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3. Differentiate between genotype and phenotype.
- Genotype: the specific genetic makeup of an individual, which may or may
not be expressed in the observable phenotype
- Phenotype: the observable characteristics produced by one's genetic
endowment
4. Explain the process of the following genetic engineering techniques:
· DNA recombinant procedure: Advances in molecular biology enable scientists not
only to map the human genome, but also to duplicate and modify the
structures of genes themselves (Peacock, 2010). In recombinant DNA
procedures, researchers use certain enzymes to cut the long threadlike
molecules of genetic DNA into pieces, combine them with DNA from another
organism, and insert them into a host organism, such as a bacterium. Inside
the host, the new DNA combination continues to divide and produce many
copies of itself.
Scientists have used this procedure to produce human growth hormone,
which is very difficult to obtain naturally in large enough quantities to use for
therapeutic purposes.
· Gene knockout technique: Molecular biologists have developed methods
for inserting new genetic material into viruses that can infiltrate neurons
and modify their genetic structure. These methods are now becoming
part of the tool kit of physiological psychologists who wish to study
genetic influences on behaviour. Recent gene-modification research by
psychologists has focused on processes such as learning, memory,
emotion, and motivation (Wahlsten, 1999). One procedure done with
animals (typically, mice) is to alter a specific gene in a way that prevents
it from carrying out its normal function. This alteration is called a gene
knockout procedure because that particular function of the gene is
eliminated. The effects on behaviour are then observed. For example,
psychologists may insert genetic material that will prevent neurons from
responding to a particular neurotransmitter and then measure whether
the animal's ability to learn or remember is affected. This research can
help psychologists determine the importance of particular transmitter
substances in relation to the behaviours of interest
5. Differentiate between each of the following:
· Embryo cloning
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