Psychology 1000 Chapter Notes - Chapter 13: Generalized Anxiety Disorder, Panic Disorder, Anxiety Disorder

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Published on 14 Apr 2013
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CHAPTER 13:
PSYCHOLOGICAL DISORDERS
March 25 (p.528 - 534)
Psychological disorders are the 2nd leading cause of disability (after heart disease)
Historical Perspectives on Psychological Disorders
Depending on time period psychological views were interpreted differently
Ex. Like demons, physical diseases, result of psychological conflict etc.
The Demonological View
Belief that abnormal behaviour is caused by supernatural forces
Trephination = sharp tool used to chisel a hole in the skull ¶ allowing demons to escape
Early Biological Views
Hippocrates suggested abnormal behaviour was b/c of disease rather than demons
Psychological Perspectives
Psychodynamic:
o Neuroses person doesn‟t lose contact w/ reality due to unresolved conflict
o Psychoses can‟t deal w/ reality longer & ¶ withdraws from it
Biological:
o Learnt behaviours via environmental factors
Cognitive
o Emphasizes people‟s thoughts & self perceptions
Humanistic:
o Environmental factors frustrate people‟s inherent self-actualization tendencies
Vulnerability-stress Model = each and every one of us has some degree of vulnerability to developing
a given psychological disorder
Vulnerability = biological, personal factor, or environmental predisposition
Appearance of disorder triggered by stress + vulnerability factor
Defining & Classifying Psychological Disorders
What is “Abnormal”?
Normality is affected by the time and the culture
¶ abnormality is a social construction
Behaviours tend to be labelled as abnormal if they are:
o Distressing to the individual
o Dysfunctional to the individual or society
o Deviant, according to the society
Abnormal Behaviour = behaviour that is personally distressful, personally dysfunctional, and/or so
culturally deviant that other ppl judge it to be inappropriate or maladaptive
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Diagnosing Psychological Disorders
Reliability = clinicians using the system should show high levels of agreement in their diagnostic
decision
¶ system should minimize subjective judgements
Validity = diagnostic categories should accurately capture the essential features of the various disorders
Categories should allow differentiation of one disorder from another
Overlap of possible diagnoses lowers reliability & validity
March 28 (p.534 - 540)
Critical Issues in Diagnostic Labelling
Diagnostic label is regarding behaviours, not the individual
People may develop the expected role & outlook of their labelled diagnosis
Also affects moral & self-esteem
Competency = a defendant‟s state of mind at the time of a judicial hearing
If too disturbed ¶ not competent to stand trial
Insanity = the presumed state of mind of the defendant when the crime was committed
¶ can be not guilty by „reason of insanity‟ now called „on account of mental disorder‟
Responsibility on defence to proof „insanity‟
Anxiety Disorders
Anxiety disorders = the frequency & intensity of anxiety responses are out of proportion to the
situation that triggers them & ¶ heavily interferes w/ daily life
Components:
1. Subjective-emotional - feelings of apprehension/tension
2. Cognitive feeling of inability to cope
3. Physiological ex. ↑ HR
4. Behavioural Responses ex. Avoidance of certain situations
Most prevalent of all psychological disorders
Phobic Disorder
Phobias = strong and irrational fears of certain objects or situations
¶ try to avoid situations involving phobia at all measures
Agoraphobia = fear of open & public spaces
Social Phobias = excessive fear of situations where they might be evaluated/embarrassed
Specific Phobias = es. Dogs, elevators, water etc.
Generalized Anxiety Disorder
Generalized Anxiety Disorder = a chronic state of diffuse anxiety that is not attached to specific
situations of objects
Has physical, cognitive, and emotional symptoms
Panic Disorder
Panic Disorders = occur suddenly & unpredictably, & are much more intense (than GAD)
Can often develop agoraphobia if panic attacks first triggered in public places
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Document Summary

Psychological disorders are the 2nd leading cause of disability (after heart disease) Depending on time period psychological views were interpreted differently. Like demons, physical diseases, result of psychological conflict etc. Belief that abnormal behaviour is caused by supernatural forces. Trephination = sharp tool used to chisel a hole in the skull allowing demons to escape. Hippocrates suggested abnormal behaviour was b/c of disease rather than demons. Psychodynamic: neuroses person doesn t lose contact w/ reality due to unresolved conflict, psychoses can t deal w/ reality longer & withdraws from it. Biological: learnt behaviours via environmental factors. Cognitive: emphasizes people s thoughts & self perceptions. Humanistic: environmental factors frustrate people s inherent self-actualization tendencies. Vulnerability-stress model = each and every one of us has some degree of vulnerability to developing a given psychological disorder. Vulnerability = biological, personal factor, or environmental predisposition. Appearance of disorder triggered by stress + vulnerability factor. Normality is affected by the time and the culture.

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